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Less commercially/culturally developed than other great world civilizations.
Indications of a developing vital society: population growth, economic productivity, a strong current of spirituality, increased political complexity, technological innovation, artistic and intellectual complexity (universities).
Introduced in Northern Europe during the Middle Ages.
Permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils.
Hundred Years' War
England vs. France.
Causes: economic conflict, rise to the throne by Edward III (King of England).
Results: kings had reduced reliance on feudal forces in favor of paid armies.
Relationships among military elite during the Middle Ages.
Greater lords provided protection to lesser lords in return for military services.
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