APUSH The American Pageant 12e Ch 26 The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution
Terms in this set (50)
Great Sioux reservation
In the 1860s, the federal government herded the Indians into smaller confines;in Dakota Territory
Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
An area to which Native Americans were moved covering what is now Oklahoma and parts of Kansas and Nebraska
Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s
Sand Creek massacre (1864)
The U.S. Army convinced a group of Cheyenne to stop raiding farms and return to their Colorado reservation peacefully, where the army attacked and killed about 150 people while burning the camp.
Fetterman massacre (1866)
Sioux war party attempting to block construction of the Bozeman Trail to Montana ambushed Captain Fetterman's command of 81 soldiers in Wyoming's Bighorn Mountains
a chief of the Sioux -- took up arms against settlers in the northern Great Plains and against United States Army troops; he was present at the battle of Little Bighorn (1876) when the Sioux massacred General Custer's troops (1831-1890)
Custer's Last Stand
at the Battle of Little Bighorn: Custer and men defeated by 2500 Sioux warriors
Chief Joseph (1877)
Def: an attempt by thier leader, to take the Nez Perce to Canada away from the U.S. army; it was defeated. Sig: constant pressure made tribe after tribe comply with state and federal laws.
The fierce Apache tribes of Arizona and New Mexico were lead by Geronimo, they were pursued into Mexico by Federal troops scattered remnants of the warriors were finally persuaded to surrender after Apache women had been exiled to Florida; the Apaches ultimately became successful farmers in Oklahoma
"Buffalo Bill" Cody
This former pony express rider and Indian fighter and hero of popular dime novels for children traveled around the U.S. and Europe and put on popular Wild West shows. The shows included re-enactments of Indian battles and displays of horsemanship and riflery
Helen Hunt Jackson (Ramona, 1884)
Recorded government cruelty towards Native American Indians
Battle of Wounded Knee (1890)
1890 last major clash between U.S. troops and Indians. Army sent to end sacred "Ghost Dance" by Dakota Sioux, whites fearful of the dance made it illegal. (It was supposed to wipe the white men from the earth) 200 men, women and Children were killed.
Dawes Severality Act (1887)
Property divided their land and sold their land to Native Americans. No longer communal and private property couldn't be sold for 25 years. Native Americans owned less land Education was funded. Took children away from family. Took Native Americans children away from family to make them civilized. This Act impoverished them and destroyed culture. Attacked tribal organization
Carlisle Indian School (1879)
taught Native American children white customs including English
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
Act which secured certain rights to Native Americans. These include a reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. Owing to this Act and to other actions of federal courts and the government, over two million acres of land were returned to various tribes in the first 20 years after passage of the act.
Pike's Peak Gold Rush (1858)
Also known as the Colorado Gold Rush) was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted until roughly the creation of the Colorado Territory on February 28, 1861. An estimated 100,000 gold seekers took part in one of the greatest gold rushes in North American history. The participants in the gold rush were known as "Fifty-Niners" after 1859, the peak year of the rush and often used the motto ***
*** or Bust!
Comstock Lode (1859)
Prospectors in Nevada discovered gold near the Carson River valley. This fabulously rich vein brought in about $340 million worth of gold and silver between 1860 and 1890.
"Long Drives" (1866-88)
The gold rush in Colorado between 1858-1961 when gold mining in the Pikes Peak Country exploded. Prospector William G. Russell led an expedition to Ralston Creek in 1851 upon rumors of gold in the streams. Once gold was found in Cherry Creek near Denver, word spread, prompting 100,000 potential prospectors to make their way to the Rocky Mountains. Only half actually made it there. The phrase Pikes Peak or Bust! was painted on wagons by prospectors to let folks know they were on their way across the prairie to find gold in Colorado. If they could see Pikes Peak, they knew they were close, as the mountain famously sits high on the horizon, farther east than any other mountain in Colorado's Front Range. The gold camps that eventually formed were actually settled in places like Boulder City, Denver City, Golden City, and Idaho Springs. Gold wasn't found near Pikes Peak in Cripple Creek until the 1890's. The term was eventually changed to the Colorado Gold Rush.
Homestead Act (1862)
Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying a nominal fee of about $30 - instead of public land being sold primarily for revenue, it was now being given away to encourage a rapid filling of empty spaces and to provide a stimulus to the family farm, turned out to be a cruel hoax because the land given to the settlers usually had terrible soil and the weather included no precipitation, many farms were repo'd or failed until "dry farming" took root on the plains , then wheat, then massive irrigation projects
name given to Great Plains farmers because they had to break through so much thick soil, called sod, in order to farm
imaginary line separating the well-watered east from the semiarid west
John Wesley Powell
a U.S. soldier, geologist, and explorer of the American West. He is famous for the 1869 Powell Geographic Expedition, a three-month river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers that included the first passage through the Grand Canyon.
Joseph F. Glidden
1874 invented a superior type of barbed wire and in 1883 the company was producing 600 miles of the product each day; the barbed wire was used against trespassing cattle
Oklahoma "sooners" (1889)
People who entered the district illegally to lay claim to lands, before the designated entry time, were called "Sooners." The name came from a section in the Indian Appropriations Act of March 2, 1889, that said that nobody would be permitted to enter upon and occupy the land before the time designated in the President's opening proclamation and that those that did would be denied rights to the land. This section became known as the "sooner clause."
Signed into a national park in 1871 by Ulysses S. Grant, it is the first ever national park in the world, established in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho -- Yosemite followed...
Frederick Jackson Turner (1893)
was an American historian in the early 20th century. He is best known for his essay "The Significance of the Frontier in American History", whose ideas are referred to as the Frontier Thesis. He is also known for his theories of geographical sectionalism. In recent years western history has seen pitched arguments over his Frontier Thesis, with the only point of agreement being his enormous impact on historical scholarship and the American mind.
crops, such as tobacco, sugar, and cotton, raised in large quantities in order to be sold for profit
Montgomery Ward (1872)
United States businessman who in 1872 established a successful mail-order business (1843-1913)
a contraction of economic activity resulting in a decline of prices
National Grange (1867)
founded by Oliver H. Kelley ;; improve lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, fraternal activities
Greenback Labor Party (1878)
Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenbackers w/ program for improving labor. Elected 14 members to Congress.
Farmers Alliances (late 1880s)
groups of farmers of those in sympathy with farming issues, whosent lectures from town to town to educate people about agriculural and rural issues,
People's Party (Populists, early 1890s)
formed in 1892, the populist party was created by farmers' alliances. The peoples' party supported the abolition of national banks and the government ownership of railroads
Coin's Financial School (1894)
popular pamphlet written by William Hope Harvey that portrayed pro-silver arguments triumphing over the traditional views of bankers and economics professors
Ignatius Donnelley and Mary Lease
Elected to Congress three times by the Populist party.
American lecturer, writer, and political activist. She was an advocate of the suffrage movement as well as temperance but she was best known for her work with the Populist party.
James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Coxey's Army (1894)
unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched to Washington demanding a government road-building program and currency inflation for the needy; Coxey was arrested for stepping on grass at the Capitol and the movement collapsed.
J. P. Morgan (1895)
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Pullman strike (1894)
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing, nonviolent strike Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Gov. John Altgeld
Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
A. G. Richard Olney
American statesman. He served as both United States Attorney General and Secretary of State under President Grover Cleveland. As attorney general, Olney used injunctions against striking workers in the Pullman strike, setting a precedent, and advised the use of federal troops, when legal means failed to control the strikers. As secretary of state, he raised the status of America in the world by elevating U.S. diplomatic posts to the status of embassy.
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
An industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. The campaign manager of McKinley in the 1896, in what is considered the forerunner of the modern political campaign, and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
"Cross of Gold" speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
referred to those who favored basing the US monetary system on gold to the exclusion of silver
Dingley Tariff Bill (1897)
Established average rates at 46.5% after over 850 amendments were added. This was much higher than the Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894 and the McKinley Act in some categories
Gold Standard Act (1900)
signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate.
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