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75 terms

Veterinary Endocrinology

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4 classes of hormones
Steroids, Amines, Thyroids, Proteins
Protein Hormones are stored as___ in ___
Pre(pro)hormones, Membrane-bound vesicles
What 2 classes of hormones have short half-lives
Proteins and Catecholamines
Catecholamines are synthesized ans stored in the _____
Adrenal Medulla
Roles of the endocrine system
Maintain Homeostasis, Coordinate growth and development, Regulate sexual reproduction processes
ACTH, Growth Hormone, CCK, arginine and vasopressin are examples of
Protein Hormones
Dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and Seretonin (5HT) are examples of
Amine Hormones
Iodothyronines (Thyroxine, T4) are examples of
Thyroid Hormones
Aldosterone, Cortisol, Corticosterone, and estradiol are examples of
Steroid Hormones
Hormones with specificity by enzymatic modification of tyrosine residues
Catecholamines
Progestins, Mineralcorticoids, Glucocorticoids, Androgens and Estrongens are categories of
Steroid Hormones
Hormones derived from cholesterol
Steroid Hormones
Coupling of Iodinated tyrosine residues
Thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones have intracellular or extracellular receptors
Intracellular
Hormone receptors have High/Low Affinity, Specificity, and Capacity
High Affinity, High Specificity, and Low Capacity
Class of hormones that bind G-coupled protein receptors
Protein Hormone
STAT's are
Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription
Amine hormones act via Intracellular/extracellular Receptors?
Extracellular Receptors
___ Bind to Heat Shock Proteins in the Cell , and regulate transcription
Steroid Hormones
The Pituitary is highly regulated by the ___
Hypothalamus
Adenohypohysis is also known as the
Anterior Pituitary
Neurohypohysis is also know as the
Posterior Pituitary
The Pars Nervosa is formed as an evagination of the
diencephalon
The pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis are parts of the
adenohyphysis
the pars ____ is the major secretory parts of the adenohypophysis
distalis
the pars ____ of the adenohypophysis is made up of non-secretory tissue
tuberalis
the pars nervosa, infundibular stalk, and median eminence make up the
neurohypophysis
The ___ sometimes appears as a residual space in the pituitary
Rathke's Pouch
Pituicytes, unmyelinated axons and fenestrated capillaries are histological components of the
Neurohypohysis
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is also known as what (in mammals)?
Vasopressin
Role of oxytocin
uterine contractions and milk letdown
Role of vasopressin (arginine vasotocin in birds)
water reabsorption in kidney
Acidophils, Basophils, and Chromophobes are histological descriptions of cells in the pars ______
distalis
Acidophils in the pars distalis produce which hormone(s)?
Growth Hormone and Prolactin
Basophils in the pars distalis produce what hormone(s)?
FSH, LH, TSH, and ACTH
Somatotropin is another name for
Growth Hormone
The superior hypophyseal artery is a branch of the ____
Internal carotid artery
What organ has the highest rate of blood flow per unit mass?
Thyroid gland
Follicular cells of the thyroid secrete
thyroglobulin
C-cells (parafollicular cells) secrete
Calcitonin
What stimulation triggers follicular cells to reabsorb thyrogobin and secrete it's components as thyroid hormones
Thyroid stimulating hormone
endocrine organ responsible for maintaining normal blood calcium
parathyroid gland
Chief cells of parathyroid secrete
parathyroid hormone
Part of the adrenal gland that secretes steroids
Adrenal cortex
Part of the adrenal gland that secretes catecholamines
Adrenal medulla
Adrenal Medulla secretes
catecholamines
Adrenal Cortex secretes
steroids
Zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata, and zona reticularis are layers of the
Adrenal Cortex
The Zona Glomerulosa secretes
Mineral Corticoids
Zona fasciculata secretes
glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids/androgens
Zona reticularis secretes
glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids/androgens
Chromaffin cells secrete
catecholamines
Catecholamines are secreted by
chromaffin cells
Hypophysectomy will reduce levels of all pituitary hormones except
Prolactin
Magnocellular neurons produce what hormones
Vasopressin and Oxytocin
What hormone is produced by both magnocellular and parvocellular neurons?
Vasopressin
Parvocellular neurons produce all pituitary hormones except
oxytocin
What enzyme cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
renin
Where is angiotensin I coverted to angiotensin II
lungs
Which nuclei contain the cell bodies of magnocellular neurons?
Supraoptic and Paraventricular nuclei
2 types of neuroendocrine neurons
Magnocellular and Parvocellular
Neurophysin I is responsible for folding and transport of
oxytocin
Neurophysin II is responsible for folding and transport of
vasopressin
increased AVP (vasopressin) causes water to be
conserved
Somatotrope cells produce
Growth Hormone
Lactotrope cells produce
Prolactin
Corticotrope cells produce
ACTH - AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone
Thyrotrope cells produce
TSH - Thyroid stimulating hormone
Gonadotrope cells produce
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Physiologic Function of Growth Hormone
Long bone growth and tissue development
Physiologic function of Prolactin
Mammary development and milk synthesis
Physiologic function of ACTH - Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Growth and secretory activity of adrenal cortex
Physiologic function of TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Growth and secretory activity of thyroid gland
Physiologic function of FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Ovarian follicle growth and spermatogenesis
Physiologic Function of Lutenizing Hormone
Ovulation, testis growth, and testosterone synthesis