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Hans Selye listed this as the first stage of the General Adaptation Syndrome


During a stress response, the dital parts of your body (hands, feet_ become _______ because ______.

Cooler, Less blood circulates through

the autogenic technique is:

Where one relaxes the body by making the body parts heavy and warm

The "tend and befriend theory" proposed by Shelley Taylor speaks best to the coping technique used by:


Experts suggest that most stressors fall in this category:

psycho-interpersonal influences

stress response initially involves:

the limbic system

the stress reduction/relaxation promoting experiments like meditation and self-hypnosis that wear re doing in the lab and outside of class for lab reports are trying to tap into what processes that alter body temperature:


the Yerkes-Dodson principle suggests that:

certain amount of stress is linked with adaptive, competent performance

the holistic wellness paradigm is based on the integration, balance, and harmony of these four components:

mind, body, spirit, and emotions

An advantage (in terms of learning) of biofeedback to other techniques is that:

it magnifies the body's conditioned response to the stress response

H. Selye, considered a pioneer in human stress, discovered the General Adaptation Syndrome by chance as:

he dropped his rats while conducting experiments in ovarian hormones

Stress and stress management, as described in your text, is best understood as what kind of model?

Energy or via Einstein's equation E=mc^2

In his stress theory Lazarus says that daily hassles cause stress Which is a cause of hassles according to Lazarus?

Unmet expectations

Allostatic load refers to

chronic stress

"Superstress" is a term coined by Dr. Roberta Lee referring to:

21st century stress

This stressor would be considered a bioecological influence

inadequate sunlight

The adrenal gland rests on this organ:


This substance is released as an immediate response to stress:


This endocrine gland is known as the master gland for its role in homronal control:

pituitary gland

Jane saw Brad Pitt from across the room and her heart rate started racing, her hands got suddenly cold, and she started breathing hard. Jane is experiencing:

Eustress, a good or healthy stress response

The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system tents to ______ target organs

Slow down

The HPA (hypothalmus-pituitary-adrenal axis) system releases a corticosteroid to stimulate physical arousal:


Under perceived stress, women tend to produce a bit more of this hormone:


Cortisol is regulated in large part by what kind of mechanism?

A negative feedback, loop, meaning that when levels get too high, they system shuts down production

Neurotrophic/neuro plasticity means

brain change or growth

The adrenal cortex:

releases coritsol and aldosterone

The ANS (SNS portion) has direct hard wired links to organs in the body that pass through the:

Reticular activating system (esp. locus coeruleus structure) in the brainstem

Vasopressin is released from which gland?


What is the likely result of damaged neurons in the hippocampus?

poor memory

The importance of controlling for environment temperature and body movement in an experiment using biofeedback thermometers is that:

both could affect the study results because body temperature changes with movement and ambient temperature

Cortisol can be assessed by:

Blood, hair, saliva

If you open up a human brain and spread out the cerebral cortex you would have about ____ of space covered:

1.6 sq feet per hemisphere or 2.5-3.0 total

Catecholamines (epinephrine and noepinephrine) are made in what part of the adrenal gland?

inside or medulla

Neurons pass electrical currents at incredible speeds as they communicate with each other. This speed is about:


Stress hormones also affect bone density by

reducing the calcium supply to bones and increasing calcium secretion in the kidneys

the cortex (outside part) of the adrenal glands produces:

glucocorticoids including cortisol

This structure is primarily responsible for episodic memory:


Which type of neural plasticity supports learning throughout one's lifetime?

experience dependent

CRH and cortisol receptors on neurons in the hypothalmus, amygdala, and other structures seem responsible for:

regulation of the stress response system. (turn on/shut off)

What neurohormones appear most involved with stress impact on human development?

CRH and cortisol

Cortisol, a primary stress hormone, _______ in the morning, and _______ at night in most healthy individuals:

increases in morning, decreases at night

The endocrine gland is called the master gland for its role in hormonal control:


Mother-nurtured rats, in experiments, ten to release more seratonin in the hippocampus, This increases the amount of cortisol (glucocorticoid) receptors in the hippocaumpus. Increased receptors are related to:

less "reactive", more adaptive stress responding

In the movie "when the bough breaks" maternal stress was related to early deliver and lower birth weight. What is one of the plausible reasons for this infant outcome?

maternal stress can cause blood flow restrictions through the placenta

Women who were stressed (malnutrition, emotional etc.) during WWII in Holland, gave birth to infants who later in adulthood showed:

Skinny body types

Genetic research (for example, serotonin transporter gene) suggests that:

individuals with a gene that produces more serotonin-transporting in the synapse (increasing the amount of serotonin) is linked with greater resistance to adversity (eg less depression, suicide in the presence of maltreatment)

In development, young children seem more behaviorally adaptive and well-adjusted in preschool if:

They mount a healthy stress response to the challenge when they first begin preschool and learn coping strategies to deal with the "stress", for example perhaps sitting next to another child or teacher

One possible reason that chronic stress from adversity may affect a child's ability to learn may be found in research that suggests:

Stress reduces neurotrophic growth factor, a necessity for brain plasticity and growth

The clown study described in class suggested that:

Children in quality attachment relationships recover more quickly from stressful events

In animal models, under stressed conditions, researchers have identified less_______________. This means _______________

less neurotrophic growth factor present, less potential for brain growth and adaptability

What was the point of the heel stick study done with young babies?

It demonstrated that young babies learn to discriminate between threats and non-threats (being picked up vs. having your heel cut). Suggests early learning behavior in the stress response system

Experience expectant plasticity:

allows for learning to occur during periods in which the brain i expecting information for example, language sounds or visual input

Susan's mother was malnourished during her pregnancy. As a result Susan is at risk for what health-related problem or disorder?

obesity and/or metabolic syndrom

One of the reasons that our brains become less plastic with aging is that we have less_________ available:

neurotrophic growth Substances

The MAOA genetic make-up of a long/version appears to provide some protection, under adverse conditions against___________, especially in___________.

The development of anti-social behavior; males

Tibetan monks are able to increase their body temperatures at will, as seen in the wet towel experiments. This suggests that:

they have purposeful control over their parasympathetic nervous systems that increase blood flow and thus temperature

What appears to be one of the best predictors of vulnerably for heart disease (per quotes in Worried Sick Video)

personality and degree of sociability

What did the stress reduction study done on medical students suggest?

That simple interventions may reduce overall chronic stress responding while in school

Antelopes experience significant stress bat are able to do what?

turn off the stress response immediately when the threat is over

The fact that eating disorders are often diagnosed in individuals who have experienced early trauma like abuse, or harsh, emotionally distanced parenting suggests that:

early stress experiences trigger one's vulnerability to eating disorders

This chemical agent is thought to be associated with "runner's high"


In the cages Macaques (worried sick video), who is most likely to get atherosclerosis?

The dominant animals who also get a high-fat diet

Blister healing studies suggest

that people heal faster when in less-stressed and supportive relationships

This Type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease:

Hostile aggressive behavior

Dr. Lazar found that during deep meditation, the___________ was highly engaged, suggesting mindful vigilance:


Who is most at risk for poorer health outcomes?


What time of day is best of for a nap?

mid day

What kind of intervention can enhance academic skills? (from the article specifically):

increased stress coping skills

What does Type D personality mean


There is emerging evidence that the "placebo affect" is a force capable of

changing brain and body physiology

Stress has been shown to affect:


Psychocardiology is a new field that looks at the links between cardiology and:


Poverty is associated with lower health outcomes...

even in children who grow up to be no longer poor

Optimism can slow down:

atherosclerosis in blood vessels

mindfulness training has been shown to be effective for?

improved attention

Men with long forms of seratonin transporter gene are most at risk for depression under chronic stress


Controversially, some researchers suggest that:

being overweight may be good for avoiding some diseases

Another stress hormone has been identified to affect heart disease and diabetes. It is:


___________ appears to reduce the effects of stress

nitric oxide

What is a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

high blood pressure

What % of the population appears to follow heart-healthy guidelines?


Co-dependent behavior deals with this most basic fear:

fear of rejection

Based on her work involving neuropeptiedes, neurophysiologist Candace Pert suggests the following hypothesis:

emotions can either suppress or enhance the integrity of the immune system

Helpless hopeless personality is most closely linked to this factor:

external locus of control

a chakra is:

an energy vortex to transduce energy in/through the energy feild

This type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease:

hostile aggressive behavior

There is emerging evidence that the "placebo effect": is a force capable of changing brain and body physiology

changing brain and body physiology

Optimism can slow down:

atherosclerosis in blood vessels

neuropeptide Y levels are linked with

PTSD and depression

In the caged Macaques (worried sick) who is most likely to get atherosclerosis?

dominant animals who also got a high fat diet

Dr. Lazar found that during deep meditation, the_______ was highly engaged, suggesting mindful vigilance:


specific immunity refers to:

a learned form of immunity that uses antibody markers to target invaders

Most research suggests that you should regularly participate in an excersice program for a minimum of how many weeks to see beneficial changes which help reduce stress:

6-8 weeks

Current research suggests that this vitamin might be the most vulnerable to depletion through the stress response"

vitamin B complex

this hormone is thought to be associated with weight gain:


Current research suggests that these factors decrease the integrity of the immune system:

alcohol and fats

In order to achieve stress reduction benefits from exercise, you should

exercise regularly at least 3-5 times per week

dark chocolate contains:


this substance is found in high levels in the brains of persons who are under chronic stress with few control resources:

protein kinase C

Cognitive restructuring is a term best described as

rethinking process of a stressor

re framing in the form of positive affirmations:

help to balance negative self-talk

The four stages of cognitive restructuring are:

awareness, reappraisal, adoption, evaluation

this substance is found in high levels in the brains of persons who are under chronic stress with few control resources

protein kinase C

Pain sensations that travel to the brain do so on slow fivers that are associated wihth longer lasting, throbbing-type pain:


One way humor may affect a person's stress level is that:

increases the likelihood of people being around the person, which enhances the immune system

One plausible theory about humor is that:

seeing things with a sense of humor imparts a degree of control over how a person responds to a situation, which in turn reduces stress

One plausible theory about humor is that:

seeing things with a sense of humor imparts a degree of control over how a person responds to a situation , which in turn reduces stress

Jim tends to respond often and quickley to stressors, and could be thought of as an "on-off" sort of person in terms of CRH/Cortisol production. As a result he is likely to:

not eat as a form of stress reduciton and be of normal weight

Cognitive restructuring is:

rethinking process of a stressor

Co-dependent behavior deals alot with:

fear of rejection

The 4 stages of cognitive restructure are:

awareness, reappraisal, adoption, evaluation

Insulin is produced under

parasympathetic input

Too much CRH and cortisol do the following:

they damage the hippocampus, as well as the amygdale and hypothalamus..... mostly by damaging the neurons and dendrites in these structures

This Type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease: hostile, aggressive behavior

hostile, aggressive behavior

In one movie, we observed baboons living in the wild have more stress if they are the submissive ones, lower on the social hierarchy. However, in the Worried Sick video, the dominant monkeys are described as more stressed. What results in the difference?

Content and personality

While short lasting stress can decrease pain perception, chronic stress:

increases pain perception

Neuropeptide Y has been related to the consumption of what:

Carbohydrate-rich food

Purposes of sleep include:

memory consolidation, neurotransmitter replenishment, problem solving, mental exercise

This body response is increased during stress to help the heart pump blood more efficiently; however chronic increases lead to cardiac disease:

blood presssure

This principle describes an optimal stress level for performance:

Yerkses_Dodson Principle

This natural and good stressor is linked with endorphin release:


This form of stress, good response to environmental stress ( seeing a hot chick):


I'm getting thinner due to stress i'm responding to. I'm producing higher levels of this substance in my blood in relation to another substance.

CRH (cortisol would be lower in persons who do no get hungry under stress)

These substances are part of teh immune system's compliments and seem quite sensitive to emotions/stress states. Pert likes them alot


This, plus a weakened immune system response and thin stomach walls, causes most ulcers:

Helicobacter pylori bacteria (H.Pylori)

Levels of this enzyme increase in the hippocampus during long-lasting stress, leading to memory problems. HIgh levels are also seen in SchizophreniaL

Protein Kinase C (PKC)

This system triggers metabolism as part of the stress response and is responsible for delayed immune system supression:

Thyroxine Axis

Time urgency, multitasking, hyper-competitiveness, stress-prone are all characteristics of

Type D personality

This personality type usually percieves themselves as a victum with an external locus of control:

Hopeless-Helpless Personality

This is a natural suppressor of the immune system..making it a good, temporary fix for inflammation, You wouldn't want to use it often though:


This frame of mind is linked with, among other good things, increased number of NK cells, important in defending the body against cancer


This condition is characterized by acute "misplaced" episodes of stress and anxiety, often following severely adverse experiences:

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

This body location where all white blood cells are produced is in the:

Bone marrrow

A very efficient way to burn of stress hormones using high levels of them for intended purpose:


this form of immune system learns about bacteria and viruses and then develops protections so we will not get sick from them again

Adaptive/Acquired Immune System

This term is another name for chronic stress:

Allostatic Load

This three substances primarily responsible for an acute stress response designed to mobilize the body. The third continues to be produced only if the threat continues:

Cortisol, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine

This effect happens following strenuous exercise:

Parasympathetic Rebound

People who experience stress seem to age faster because these shorter:

Telomers on the DNA strand

IN this state, the strongest characteristic in stress resistatant personailty:

positive self esteem

Commitment, control, and challenge are characteristics of this personality type:

Hardy (or resilient) personality type

A cognitive strategy in which i rethink or reframe how i interpret a situation (stress responses are under my control)

cognitive restructuring

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