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During a stress response, the dital parts of your body (hands, feet_ become _______ because ______.
Cooler, Less blood circulates through
The "tend and befriend theory" proposed by Shelley Taylor speaks best to the coping technique used by:
the stress reduction/relaxation promoting experiments like meditation and self-hypnosis that wear re doing in the lab and outside of class for lab reports are trying to tap into what processes that alter body temperature:
the Yerkes-Dodson principle suggests that:
certain amount of stress is linked with adaptive, competent performance
the holistic wellness paradigm is based on the integration, balance, and harmony of these four components:
mind, body, spirit, and emotions
An advantage (in terms of learning) of biofeedback to other techniques is that:
it magnifies the body's conditioned response to the stress response
H. Selye, considered a pioneer in human stress, discovered the General Adaptation Syndrome by chance as:
he dropped his rats while conducting experiments in ovarian hormones
Stress and stress management, as described in your text, is best understood as what kind of model?
Energy or via Einstein's equation E=mc^2
In his stress theory Lazarus says that daily hassles cause stress Which is a cause of hassles according to Lazarus?
Jane saw Brad Pitt from across the room and her heart rate started racing, her hands got suddenly cold, and she started breathing hard. Jane is experiencing:
Eustress, a good or healthy stress response
The HPA (hypothalmus-pituitary-adrenal axis) system releases a corticosteroid to stimulate physical arousal:
Cortisol is regulated in large part by what kind of mechanism?
A negative feedback, loop, meaning that when levels get too high, they system shuts down production
The ANS (SNS portion) has direct hard wired links to organs in the body that pass through the:
Reticular activating system (esp. locus coeruleus structure) in the brainstem
The importance of controlling for environment temperature and body movement in an experiment using biofeedback thermometers is that:
both could affect the study results because body temperature changes with movement and ambient temperature
If you open up a human brain and spread out the cerebral cortex you would have about ____ of space covered:
1.6 sq feet per hemisphere or 2.5-3.0 total
Catecholamines (epinephrine and noepinephrine) are made in what part of the adrenal gland?
inside or medulla
Neurons pass electrical currents at incredible speeds as they communicate with each other. This speed is about:
Stress hormones also affect bone density by
reducing the calcium supply to bones and increasing calcium secretion in the kidneys
CRH and cortisol receptors on neurons in the hypothalmus, amygdala, and other structures seem responsible for:
regulation of the stress response system. (turn on/shut off)
Cortisol, a primary stress hormone, _______ in the morning, and _______ at night in most healthy individuals:
increases in morning, decreases at night
Mother-nurtured rats, in experiments, ten to release more seratonin in the hippocampus, This increases the amount of cortisol (glucocorticoid) receptors in the hippocaumpus. Increased receptors are related to:
less "reactive", more adaptive stress responding
In the movie "when the bough breaks" maternal stress was related to early deliver and lower birth weight. What is one of the plausible reasons for this infant outcome?
maternal stress can cause blood flow restrictions through the placenta
Women who were stressed (malnutrition, emotional etc.) during WWII in Holland, gave birth to infants who later in adulthood showed:
Skinny body types
Genetic research (for example, serotonin transporter gene) suggests that:
individuals with a gene that produces more serotonin-transporting in the synapse (increasing the amount of serotonin) is linked with greater resistance to adversity (eg less depression, suicide in the presence of maltreatment)
In development, young children seem more behaviorally adaptive and well-adjusted in preschool if:
They mount a healthy stress response to the challenge when they first begin preschool and learn coping strategies to deal with the "stress", for example perhaps sitting next to another child or teacher
One possible reason that chronic stress from adversity may affect a child's ability to learn may be found in research that suggests:
Stress reduces neurotrophic growth factor, a necessity for brain plasticity and growth
The clown study described in class suggested that:
Children in quality attachment relationships recover more quickly from stressful events
In animal models, under stressed conditions, researchers have identified less_______________. This means _______________
less neurotrophic growth factor present, less potential for brain growth and adaptability
What was the point of the heel stick study done with young babies?
It demonstrated that young babies learn to discriminate between threats and non-threats (being picked up vs. having your heel cut). Suggests early learning behavior in the stress response system
Experience expectant plasticity:
allows for learning to occur during periods in which the brain i expecting information for example, language sounds or visual input
Susan's mother was malnourished during her pregnancy. As a result Susan is at risk for what health-related problem or disorder?
obesity and/or metabolic syndrom
One of the reasons that our brains become less plastic with aging is that we have less_________ available:
neurotrophic growth Substances
The MAOA genetic make-up of a long/version appears to provide some protection, under adverse conditions against___________, especially in___________.
The development of anti-social behavior; males
Tibetan monks are able to increase their body temperatures at will, as seen in the wet towel experiments. This suggests that:
they have purposeful control over their parasympathetic nervous systems that increase blood flow and thus temperature
What appears to be one of the best predictors of vulnerably for heart disease (per quotes in Worried Sick Video)
personality and degree of sociability
What did the stress reduction study done on medical students suggest?
That simple interventions may reduce overall chronic stress responding while in school
Antelopes experience significant stress bat are able to do what?
turn off the stress response immediately when the threat is over
The fact that eating disorders are often diagnosed in individuals who have experienced early trauma like abuse, or harsh, emotionally distanced parenting suggests that:
early stress experiences trigger one's vulnerability to eating disorders
In the cages Macaques (worried sick video), who is most likely to get atherosclerosis?
The dominant animals who also get a high-fat diet
Blister healing studies suggest
that people heal faster when in less-stressed and supportive relationships
This Type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease:
Hostile aggressive behavior
Dr. Lazar found that during deep meditation, the___________ was highly engaged, suggesting mindful vigilance:
What kind of intervention can enhance academic skills? (from the article specifically):
increased stress coping skills
There is emerging evidence that the "placebo affect" is a force capable of
changing brain and body physiology
Poverty is associated with lower health outcomes...
even in children who grow up to be no longer poor
Men with long forms of seratonin transporter gene are most at risk for depression under chronic stress
Controversially, some researchers suggest that:
being overweight may be good for avoiding some diseases
Another stress hormone has been identified to affect heart disease and diabetes. It is:
Based on her work involving neuropeptiedes, neurophysiologist Candace Pert suggests the following hypothesis:
emotions can either suppress or enhance the integrity of the immune system
This type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease:
hostile aggressive behavior
There is emerging evidence that the "placebo effect": is a force capable of changing brain and body physiology
changing brain and body physiology
In the caged Macaques (worried sick) who is most likely to get atherosclerosis?
dominant animals who also got a high fat diet
Dr. Lazar found that during deep meditation, the_______ was highly engaged, suggesting mindful vigilance:
specific immunity refers to:
a learned form of immunity that uses antibody markers to target invaders
Most research suggests that you should regularly participate in an excersice program for a minimum of how many weeks to see beneficial changes which help reduce stress:
Current research suggests that this vitamin might be the most vulnerable to depletion through the stress response"
vitamin B complex
Current research suggests that these factors decrease the integrity of the immune system:
alcohol and fats
In order to achieve stress reduction benefits from exercise, you should
exercise regularly at least 3-5 times per week
this substance is found in high levels in the brains of persons who are under chronic stress with few control resources:
protein kinase C
this substance is found in high levels in the brains of persons who are under chronic stress with few control resources
protein kinase C
Pain sensations that travel to the brain do so on slow fivers that are associated wihth longer lasting, throbbing-type pain:
One way humor may affect a person's stress level is that:
increases the likelihood of people being around the person, which enhances the immune system
One plausible theory about humor is that:
seeing things with a sense of humor imparts a degree of control over how a person responds to a situation, which in turn reduces stress
One plausible theory about humor is that:
seeing things with a sense of humor imparts a degree of control over how a person responds to a situation , which in turn reduces stress
Jim tends to respond often and quickley to stressors, and could be thought of as an "on-off" sort of person in terms of CRH/Cortisol production. As a result he is likely to:
not eat as a form of stress reduciton and be of normal weight
Too much CRH and cortisol do the following:
they damage the hippocampus, as well as the amygdale and hypothalamus..... mostly by damaging the neurons and dendrites in these structures
This Type D (or A) characteristic is thought to be most closely related to coronary heart disease: hostile, aggressive behavior
hostile, aggressive behavior
In one movie, we observed baboons living in the wild have more stress if they are the submissive ones, lower on the social hierarchy. However, in the Worried Sick video, the dominant monkeys are described as more stressed. What results in the difference?
Content and personality
Purposes of sleep include:
memory consolidation, neurotransmitter replenishment, problem solving, mental exercise
This body response is increased during stress to help the heart pump blood more efficiently; however chronic increases lead to cardiac disease:
I'm getting thinner due to stress i'm responding to. I'm producing higher levels of this substance in my blood in relation to another substance.
CRH (cortisol would be lower in persons who do no get hungry under stress)
These substances are part of teh immune system's compliments and seem quite sensitive to emotions/stress states. Pert likes them alot
This, plus a weakened immune system response and thin stomach walls, causes most ulcers:
Helicobacter pylori bacteria (H.Pylori)
Levels of this enzyme increase in the hippocampus during long-lasting stress, leading to memory problems. HIgh levels are also seen in SchizophreniaL
Protein Kinase C (PKC)
This system triggers metabolism as part of the stress response and is responsible for delayed immune system supression:
Time urgency, multitasking, hyper-competitiveness, stress-prone are all characteristics of
Type D personality
This personality type usually percieves themselves as a victum with an external locus of control:
This is a natural suppressor of the immune system..making it a good, temporary fix for inflammation, You wouldn't want to use it often though:
This frame of mind is linked with, among other good things, increased number of NK cells, important in defending the body against cancer
This condition is characterized by acute "misplaced" episodes of stress and anxiety, often following severely adverse experiences:
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
A very efficient way to burn of stress hormones using high levels of them for intended purpose:
this form of immune system learns about bacteria and viruses and then develops protections so we will not get sick from them again
Adaptive/Acquired Immune System
This three substances primarily responsible for an acute stress response designed to mobilize the body. The third continues to be produced only if the threat continues:
Cortisol, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine
Commitment, control, and challenge are characteristics of this personality type:
Hardy (or resilient) personality type
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