Turkic empire from Asia minor. Went to Middle East and Balkans. 1453 - conquered Constantinople, caused end of the Byzantine Empire. Focus on conquest/administration overshadowed commercial ambitions.
1368 - replaced the Yuan dynasty, lasted until 1644. Initially mounted large trade expeditions into South Asia and Africa, but later concentrated on internal development in China.
Cons of the West emerging as a global power: western nations lacked the political coherence of imperial China, the church was under attack, lives of ordinary citizens were in disarray, economic problems and population loss.
Polynesian Migration And Conquest
Polynesian culture was spread beyond the Society islands.
Developed effective new governments with religious mission and religious support.