-aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium, some contain inclusion bodies, +amylase
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Terms in this set (103)
Mycobacterium -G+ bacillus, acid fast, causes TB (pink rods in acid fast stain)Proteus -G- facultative anaerobe, motile diffuse, + gelatinase, +urease, +H2SProvidencia -G- bacillus, +urease, +citrate, non-lactose fermenter (ferments glucose)Pseudomonas -G- bacillus, produces pyocyanin (blue/green pigment), + oxidase, +nitrate/nitrite reductaseRhodospirillum -G- spirillum, red/pink and photosyntheticSalmonella -G- bacillus, can lead to food poisoning, +agglutinationSerratia -G- enteric bacilli, produces bright red pigmentStaphylococcus -G+ cocci in bunches, + catalase S. epidermis is salt tolerantStreptococcus -G+ cocci in chainsBalantidium -causes balantidiasisEntamoeba -causes dysenteryGiardia -causes giardiasis or beaver feaverLeishmania -causes leishmaniasis parasiticPlasmodium -causes malariaTrichomonas -causes vaginitis, urethritisTrypanosoma -causes sleeping sickness and Chagas diseaseAspergillus -mold/filamentous fungi, white with black dots on breadPenicillium -mold/filamentous fungi, conidiospores (no sac)Rhizopus -mold/filamentous fungi, sporangiospores (sac)Saccharomyces -yeast fungi, can be used to ferment grapes for wineCandida -yeast fungi, forms germ tubes, responsible for yeast infectionsRhodotorula -yeast fungiEnterobius female -eggs at tipNecator -hookwormTrichinella -causes trichinellosisSchistosoma -causes bilharziaSchistosoma eggsSchistosoma cercariaeSchistoma in copulaWuchereria -causes lymphatic filariasis (elephatitis)Ascaris -giant roundwormAscaris eggsTaenia -causes taeniasis, tape worms, scolex, protoglottidsTaenia protoglottidsEndospore stain -malachite green, safranin endospores/spores/vegetative cells Bacillus-methylene blue, BacillusInclusion body stainAcid-fast stain -pink is +, mycolic acid methylene blue, carbol fuchsin dyes +Mycobacterium-test water for lactose-fermenting bacteria, tubes must turn from green to yellow and have gas bubblePresumptive test-if bacteria are positive for presumptive test, plate on EMB agar and look for green sheenConfirmed test-if green sheen, test again for lactose fermentationCompleted test-nutrients including extracts from yeasts, meat, or plantscomplex media-contain additional nutrients, such as blood or serum, to allow growth of very fastidious microorganismsenriched media-Favor the growth of a particular microbe while inhibiting the growth of another.differential media-Make it easy to distinguish colonies of different microbes.differential media-exact chemical composition is knownchemically defined mediatypes of hemolysis -alpha is incomplete lysis of RBCs, beta is complete lysis, gamma is no lysis-Least antibiotic concentration that inhibits growth.minimum inhibitory concentration-breaks molecular bonds within bacterial DNA, prevents bacterial growth lid on plate and paper towel protects from UVUV light effects on growthMacConkey agar -Both Selective (crystal violet, G- bacteria) and Differential (lactose fermenting bacteria)-selects for G-, differentiates lactose fermentation, eosin methylene blue, coliform bacteria/EscherichiaEMB agar-differential media, enriched media, detection of hemolysinsBlood agar-selective for salt tolerant bacteria, such as S. epidermissalt agar-increases growth to a certain point, then enzymes become denatured, thermal death point most bacteria grow best between 30C and 37Ctemperature effects on growthcarbohydrate fermentation testIMViC testsindole test -tryptone broth, kovac's reagent, tests for tryptophan (protein) metabolismmethyl red test -methyl red pH indicator, red is acidic, indicates mixed acid fermentation pathway -tests for pyruvic acid from glucose fermentationVoges-Proskauer test -Barritt's A and B solutions, rose color to dark pink indicates basic (positive) reaction, tests for butanediol fermentation pathwaycitrate test -green slant turns blue with growth (positive), indicates bacteria can grow using citrate as only carbon sourceurease test -urease degrades urea and produces ammonia and CO2 gas, raises pH +Proteus, +Providencia, +Morganellaoxidase test -reacts only with one cytochrome oxidase, use Kovac's reagent Pseudomonas +, Escherichia -lysine/ornithine decarboxylase test -alkaline reaction (purple) used to differentiate members of Enterobacteriaceae Enterobacter cloacae (- lysine, + ornithine) Klebsiella pneumoniae (+ lysine, - ornithine) Providencia alcalifaciens (- lysine, - ornithine) Serratia marcescens (+ lysine, + ornithine)phenylalanine deaminase test -enzyme removes amino group from phenylalanie to yeild phenylpyruvic acid, test detects phenylpyruvic acid using phenylalanine agar and ferric chloridehydrogen sulfide test -TSI agar, peptone iron + Providencia Agar deep is usedDNase test -methyl green agar, tests for DNase (deoxyribonuclease) + S. aureus, +some Staphnitrate reduction test -Psedomonas (both +) Escherichia (+nitrate only)nitrate reduction test part 1 -bubbles = +nitrate and +nitrite reductase red = +nitrate reductase no change = need to add zincnitrate reduction test part 2 -red = negative for both enzymes no color change = + both enzymescoagulase test -used only for G+ suspected Staph species, uses rabbit plasma +Some staph +S. auereusRPR test -tests for reagin, syphilis screening, nonspecific antibody testELISA -enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, direct and indirectAmoeba -free living protozoan, move by pseudopod, phylum AmoebozoaEuglena -free living protozoan, move by flagella, phylum EuglenozoaParamecium -free living protozoan, move by cilia, phylum CiliophoraVorticella -free living protozoan, move by cilia, phylum CiliophoraStentor -free living protozoan, move by cilia, phylum Ciliophoraoxygen requirements -1. obligate aerobe, Micrococcus 2. facultative anaerobe, Escherichia 3. aerotolerant anaerobe, some Bacillus 4. obligate anaerobe, Clostridium 5. microaerophile, capnophiles-viable bacteria per mL = average # colonies x dilution factor dilution factor = dilution (0.1mL) x plating factor (10^-1) ex: 10^6 plate is countable, 10^1 is dilution factor, 10^7 is viable bacteria per mLserial dilution calculation30 to 300viable bacterial countamylase test -hydrolyses starch, use iodine on starch plate, bacillus are+ An amylase test measures the amount of this enzyme in a sample of blood taken from a vein or in a sample of urine. determines pancreatitiscatalase test -catalase degrades h2o2 into water and o2 +Staphylococcus, +Micrococcus, +Corynebacterium-elongated pseudohyphae, allow yeasts to adhere to host tissuesgerm tubes-group of hyphae that can be seen with the naked eye, as in bread moldmyceliumbrewers jar -Used to create an anaerobic environment, favored by bacteria like Clostridium, Escherichiacandle jar -microaerophilic bacterial species grow in an atmosphere where the oxygen is reduced by the burning candle, favored by capnophiles and+B. cereus, -B. subtilis methylene blue is used made up of complex fatty acidsinclusion bodiesKlebsiella pneumoniae cell attachment and protectionCapsule Stain+Mycobacterium smegmatis -E. coli impermeable cell walls carbol fuchsin ethanol with 3% HCl Loafer's Methylene blueAcid-fast stain+B. cereus ability to form endospores allows to survive harsh conditionsEndospore Stain-The RapID ONE test panel contains 18 reaction cavities that provide 19 test scores. Each cavity contains dehydrated reactants, and results are based on microbial degradation of specific substrates detected by various indicator systemsThe -RapID NF Plus multi-test is very similar to the RapID ONE multi-test; however, it is used for testing oxidase-positive bacteria.MultitestStrip or disk -Penicillin is most effective on S. aureus (TMP was least effective -Oflaxin is most effective on E. coli (TMP was also effective) -P and OFX were opposite in effective antibiotics -B. subtilus is a natural antibiotic against Micrococcus luteus -Ceforoxine and Methicillin is natural antibiotic against E. coliEffects of AntibioticsBactine is most effective against S. aureus and E. coliEffects of disinfectants and antisepticsS. cerevisiae: Gram+ cocci R. rubra: Gram+ bacilliYeast Fungi

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