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31 terms

AP Bio Test Review- Ch.'s 41, 42, & 44- (Kidney, Circulation, and Animals)

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endotherms
(warm-blooded)-birds and mammals
ectotherms
(cold-blooded)-bony fish, cartilagenous fish, reptile, and amphibians
What part of the brain controls temperature?
hypothalamus
urea
Formed in liver from NH3 and CO2. Main waste product of humans.
Is urea more toxic than ammonia?
NO
What is the main nitrogenous waste product of a bird?
Uric acid-least toxic
Does uric acid require a lot of water?
NO
osmoconformer
an organism that is isotonic to seawater (equal concentration)-marine organism. In fish, gills play a role in this.
Annelids
nephridia
Insects
malpighian tubules
Frog
kidney
marine invertebrates
cell exchange, diffusion
(Platyhelminthes) flatworms
protonephridia, flame cells
What is the functional unit of kidney?
Nephron
What process refers to materials being returned to the blood?
reabsorption
In what part of the nephron does urine become more concentrated?
collecting duct
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
increases reabsorption of water by body and increases salt concentration in urine.
Aldosterone
increases water and salt reabsorption
closed circulatory system
circulating fluid is distinct from fluid surrounding cells. Material diffuses between blood vessels and interstitial fluid. Ex's: earthworms, squid, and octopuses
open circulatory system
In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs-blood bathes directly. There is no direction between blood and interstitial fluid.
What is the process in which water flows over gills and then blood travels to the gills?
countercurrent exchange
What do insects use for gas exchange?
tracheal tubules
What regulates breathing in humans?
carbon dioxide and oxygen levels and pH sensors
How is carbon dioxide carried in the lungs?
By a bicarbonate ion
What is the name of the molecule that carries oxygen?
hemoglobin
What is a molecule that carries oxygen in an open system?
hemocyanin
What is the structure of hemoglobin?
protein (made up of 4 chains) and Fe (metal that binds oxygen)-up to 4 oxygens.
What happens if one amino acid is changed?
hemoglobin can produce sickle cells
Which animals have a gastrovascular cavity?
flatworms and cnidarians (hydra)-jellyfish
What is the name of the molecule that breaks down fat molecules?
Bile
What are the digestive enzymes that break down molecules?
pepsin (very acidic)