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(warm-blooded)-birds and mammals


(cold-blooded)-bony fish, cartilagenous fish, reptile, and amphibians

What part of the brain controls temperature?



Formed in liver from NH3 and CO2. Main waste product of humans.

Is urea more toxic than ammonia?


What is the main nitrogenous waste product of a bird?

Uric acid-least toxic

Does uric acid require a lot of water?



an organism that is isotonic to seawater (equal concentration)-marine organism. In fish, gills play a role in this.




malpighian tubules



marine invertebrates

cell exchange, diffusion

(Platyhelminthes) flatworms

protonephridia, flame cells

What is the functional unit of kidney?


What process refers to materials being returned to the blood?


In what part of the nephron does urine become more concentrated?

collecting duct

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

increases reabsorption of water by body and increases salt concentration in urine.


increases water and salt reabsorption

closed circulatory system

circulating fluid is distinct from fluid surrounding cells. Material diffuses between blood vessels and interstitial fluid. Ex's: earthworms, squid, and octopuses

open circulatory system

In insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs-blood bathes directly. There is no direction between blood and interstitial fluid.

What is the process in which water flows over gills and then blood travels to the gills?

countercurrent exchange

What do insects use for gas exchange?

tracheal tubules

What regulates breathing in humans?

carbon dioxide and oxygen levels and pH sensors

How is carbon dioxide carried in the lungs?

By a bicarbonate ion

What is the name of the molecule that carries oxygen?


What is a molecule that carries oxygen in an open system?


What is the structure of hemoglobin?

protein (made up of 4 chains) and Fe (metal that binds oxygen)-up to 4 oxygens.

What happens if one amino acid is changed?

hemoglobin can produce sickle cells

Which animals have a gastrovascular cavity?

flatworms and cnidarians (hydra)-jellyfish

What is the name of the molecule that breaks down fat molecules?


What are the digestive enzymes that break down molecules?

pepsin (very acidic)

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