Symbols of the Four Evangelists
Matthew- Angel or Man
-Influenced by Rome
---Hierarchy of Scale
---God is always represented by hands
What did fear of idolization cause?
-Nothing life size or free standing
-Avoids anything too realistic
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
-Shows roman influence
--Jesus riding into Palm Sunday, similar to Titus Triumphal Procession
--Jesus n center, surrounded by Peter and Paul, with roman gods at his feet
After Christianity was legalized...
Depictions of Jesus began to parallel those of Roman emperors
-Shepard hook became staff
Justinian and Theodora
Emperor and his wife
-held back Persians
-Theodora commissioned a ton of art and architecture
Roman building used for public administration, later used as church by Christians and Jews
Nave: Aisle on both sides separated by colonnade
Apse with Torah Shrine facing Jerusalem
Narthex: Vestibule or lobby of the synagogue
Built on an Axis, more popular in Rome, draws worshipers forward in a line towards the apse.
More vertical axis, usually having a dome. Most often used as tombs or baptistries.
Old St. Peter's Basilica
-Marks burial place of St. Peter
-Inspired other churches
-Characterizes Christian Basilica
-Uses columns taken from Roman buildings (very symbolic)
-Mausoleum of Constantina, Constantine's daughter.
-Ambulatory: Barrel vaulted passageway (women kept here during worship)
-Covered in mosaics which show pagan influence.
-12 columns = 12 apostles
-Mosaics in Santa Costanza mistaken for Pagan worship of Bacchus by Putti: (Naked Cherubs) harvesting grapes to make wine.
Mausoleum and Oratory of Galla Placidia
-Oratory: small chapel
-Combines axial and central design in a cruciform, or cross shape.
-Beautiful internal mosaics placed in lunettes formed by barrel vaults.
Church of Holy Wisdom
-Built on site of a church burned down during revolt against Justinian.
-Built to show imperial power and Christian glory (one in the same to Justinian)
-Designed by Mathematician, Anthemius of Tralles and a physicist, Isidorus of Miletus.
-first time pendentives are used
-small windows around dome create halo of light
-Built for a martyr by Justinian
-Centrally planned Octagon
-Plain exterior, typical of early Byzantine
-Windows made to light interior decoration.
San Vitale Mosaics
-Colored tesserae (gold, stones, glass)
-Laid on gold or silver backing to create eternal space
-Cut at angle to catch light or sunlight.
-Much brighter than roman mosaics
-made to look like heaven, like they are floating
St. Mark's Cathedral
-Geometric: Domes placed at each cross section
-Each dome has its own axis.
-Mosaics are lit by windows at base of the dome.
-Iconostasis separates apse from the nave.
-Gold background, icons appear to float.
-Hold's relics of the evangelist Saint Mark.
-Elegance of wealth (of Byzantine empire)
-Rich artistic decoration
-Medieval and classical influence.
David Composing the Psalms
Lots of Pagan influence
-Animals gathering = Orpheus charming animals with music.
-Melody, a muse behind David.
-Column with ribbon =Greek/Roman funeral practice.
-Classical appearance and style.
Virgin of Vladimir
-Based on belief that St. Luke first painted images of Mary and Jesus from a vision.
-Thought to be protection
The Infant Virgin Mary Caressed by her Parents
-Church of Christ in Chora
-After crusades icons began possessing more human emotions
-Medieval practice of putting labels/names with figures.
-Deeis "entreaty" of John the Baptist, Mary and Jesus
-Begins movement toward medieval art
Saint Michael the Archangle Diptych
-Early sixth cent.
-Copied Roman carving method used for notices/announcements.