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30 terms

Digestive System

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mouth
digestion begins in this structure
tongue
mashes food into a soft ball called a bolus
salivary glands
secrete saliva into the mouth
esophagus
peristalsis occurs here, but no digestion
stomach
muscular organ that contracts and relaxes to churn food like a blender
liver
structure that makes bile
gallbladder
structure that stores bile
pancreas
makes digestive enzymes like insulin and secretes them into the small intestine
teeth
structures that crush and grind food mechanically into smaller bits
small intestine
responsible for most chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients
villi
increase surface area and absorption
large intestine
absorbs water; bacteria here digest fiber and make vitamins B and K
mucus
secreted into the mouth, lines esophagus and stomach
enzymes
proteins that speed chemical reactions and break down nutrients into molecules
bile
breaks down fats into smaller peices so that enzymes can digest the fat
mouth
starches are chemically and mechanically digested here
stomach
proteins are the only nutrient digested here
saliva
contains mucus, enzymes and water; moistens food
fiber
digested by bacteria, which cause gas as a waste product
diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of higher to concentration to lower
chemical digestion
the breakdown of food into molecules small enough to pass through cell membranes
mechanical digestion
the breakdown of food into smaller particles
chyme
the name of food, now a liquid, as it leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine
absorption
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of the digestive system into the blood.
epiglottis
The flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
rectum
A short section at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated.
feces
solid waste
anus
The opening at the end of the digestive system through which wastes are eliminated.
vomiting
body's response to the internal stimulus of something harmful in the stomach
hydrochloric acid
produced by the stomach, kills bacteria, causes proteins to clump