1) Investigates a contemporary phenomenon in depth and within its real-life context, especially when:
2) The boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident.
Yin . Case study research. Features.
Case study is an all-encompassing method that includes logic of design, data collection techniques, and specific approaches to data analysis. Theory development is essential to the design phase of good case studies.
Yin . Case study research. Types of case studies.
Single, multiple-case. Case studies can also be part of a larger mixed-method study.
Yin . Case study research. Four applications for evaluation research.
1) Explain causal links. 2) Describe an intervention and its real-life context. 3) Illustrate certain topics within an evaluation. 4) Enlighten situations in which the intervention has no clear, single set of outcomes.
Yin . Case study research. Five components of case study research design.
1. A study's questions. 2. Its propositions, if any. 3. Its units of analysis. 4. The logic linking the data to the proposition. 5. The criteria for interpreting the findings.
Creswell . Three types of case studies.
1. Intrinsic. Has unique or unusual interest in and of itself.
2. Instrumental. Focuses on an issue of concern, and then a bounded case is used to illustrate this issue.
3. Collective. Multiple cases illustrate an issue.
Creswell . Challenges with case studies.
Case selection requires skill. Defining boundaries is difficult.
Yin . Construct validity in case studies.
1. Use multiple sources of evidence. 2. Establish chain of evidence. 3. Have key informants review draft report.
Yin . Internal validity in case studies.
1. Do pattern matching. 2. Do explanation building. 3. Address rival explanations. 4. Use logic models.
Yin . External validity in case studies.
1. Use theory in single-case studies. 2. Use replication logic in multiple-case studies.
Yin . Reliability in case studies.
1. Use case study protocol. 2. Develop case study database.
Yin . When case studies are a good fit.
1. When how and why questions are to be answered. 2. When the focus is on a current phenomenon in a real-life context.
Yin . Generalizability.
Case studies are generalizable to theoretical propositions.
Yin . Sources of evidence .
Documentation. Archival records. Interviews. Direct observations. Participant-observation. Physical artifacts.
Sullivan . Five components for case studies.
1. Opening para with an overview of the situation. 2. Description of the institutional setting. 3. Narrative. [C&J prefer exposition.] 4. Close with an analysis of the dilemma and any lessons learned. 5. Conclude with a set of questions to guide discussion.