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AP US Unit 5 HW Notes
Terms in this set (79)
Key topics of ch. 15?
The failure of efforts by Whigs and Democrats to find a lasting political compromise on the issue of slavery, the end of the Second American Party System and the rise of the Republican Party, the secession of the southern states following the Republican party victory in the election of 1860.
What did the Lincoln-Douglas debates show?
How serious slavery had become, Illinois communities debate slavery.
What marked 1850?
geographic expansion, population increase, economic development, changes from market revolution promote huge changes. Economically, culturally, politically, Americans had forged a national identity
What do Americans feel in 1850s?
National pride and self-confidence, boosted by victory in Mexican-American War and California Gold Rush.
How had America grown from 1800 to 1850?
Had tripled in size, huge population increase, 4 million African American slaves, 2 million new immigrants. 16 to 31 states, more than half of population lives west of Appalachians. America is richer; southern cotton is nation's biggest export, income doubles. Growth of manufacturing in Northeast, rapid opening of rich farmland in Midwest helps make US manufacturing nation and a major exporter of agricultural products. Diminishing economic importance of cotton diminishes political importance, questions the role of the slave South in the future of US.
How did the US establish different politics in the 1850s?
"Manifest Destiny" increases pride, Democratic revolutions in Italy, France, Germany, Hungary, Austrian Empire. Americans assume American democracy was inspiration for all of this.
What was one unifying theme in the growing sense of national identity and middle-class values, institutions, and culture?
Pride in democracy.
What was the "American Renaissance" in the 1850s?
American writers find distinctive American themes, burst of creative activity. Newspapers, magazines, communication improvements create national audience for scholars and writers (Emily Dickinson, Frederick Douglas, Nathaniel Hawthorne, etc.)
What did American writers pioneer in the American Renaissance?
New literacy forms, experiment with new poetry.
What was the mid-century popular mood? What were writers in the American Renaissance like?
Mood was self-congratulation, most are social critics (The Scarlett Letter, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas).
What was the most successful novel of the American Renaissance?
Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, combines anti-slavery message and women's domestic novels. Bestseller, sells even more in Britain.
What was the Wilmot Proviso?
(1846) Was passed in house but not Senate twice, would have banned slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico in Mexican-American war, starts conflict, Whigs and Democrats unable to solve it.
What was the Second American Party System?
A national party system, politicians created parties that overrode sectional differences, politicians cooperate because they know they need national appeal. mass political party system creates national community of like-minded voters, by election of 1848, sectional interests erode political "glue".
What were political splits preceded by?
Divisions in other social institutions: slavery issue had split northern and southern groups: Presbyterians in 1837, Methodists in 1844, Baptists in 1845.
Abolitionists pose what question since 1830s?
State choice of slavery of freedom, freedom is national while slavery is local and sectional.
How were the Southern Whigs alienated in the election of 1852?
1852: Henry Clay is dead, William Seward of NY is now Whig head, gets war hero General Winfield Scott nominates, prefers him to pro-southern Fillmore. Southern Whigs alienated.
Democrat candidates in election of 1852?
Lewis Cass (popular sovereignty), Stephen Douglas (composer of the Compromise of 1850), James Buchanan ("The northern man with southern principles."), Franklin Pierce of NH (southern sympathies).
How do Democrats do in election of 1852?
Poll well in the North and South, most Democrats who had voted for the Free-Soil Party in 1848 now vote for him, many immigrant Irish and German voters, do too (were eligible for citizenship after 3 years)
What did strong immigrant votes for the Democrats mark?
Strong Democrat influence in the northern cities, reformers complain about corruption and "vote buying" by urban bosses
What was the "Young America" movement?
Group of writers and politicians in the NY Democratic Party, believe in the democratic and nationalistic "Manifest Destiny", by 1850s goals are to conquer Central American and Cuba, expansionists look southward since end of Mexican-American War.
Why was Pierces' administration suspicious?
Private "fillibusters" invade the Caribbean and Central America countries with declared intention of expanding slave territory.
What were the fillibusters prompted by?
Cuban slave revolts in 1843-1844, led Cuban slave owners to seek annexation to the US so slavery could continue.
What was the Ostend Manifesto?
1854- Pierce authorizes minister to Spain to try to force Spanish to sell Cuba for $130 million. Tempt with threats and cajolements. At first, offer appeals, suggesting American southerners and Cubans are "one people with one destiny", then threatens to take Cuba if necessary.
Why was the Ostend Manifesto funny?
Suposed to be secret, leaked into press, administration embarrassed and forced to repudiate it.
What did Pierce do in 1854 resulting in the opening of Japan to American trade?
Sends mission to Japan in 1854, commercial treaty.
What lost the northern goodwill it had begun with?
Complicity between Pierce administration and proslavery expansionists.
Who reignited the sectional struggle over slavery expansion?
Who were the first to claim Kansas lands?
people from Missouri, establish proslavery towns, swap Kansas elections with Missouri votes.
Who were most proslavery votes cast by in Kansas?
The border ruffians.
What did Kansas become between the New Englanders and Missourians?
Bloody "bleeding Kansas", source of conflict. Shows rest of nation how bad separation on slavery can be.
What marked the elections of 1854 and 1856 in NY?
Serious violence, in New Orleans, skirmishes for 5 days between Catholics and vigilantes. In Chicago, riots starting in 1855 by German, Irish, Swedes protesting, met by special police and National Guard
What was the urban violence caused by?
The breakdown of the two-party system. Breakup of Whigs leaves political blank filled with anti-immigrant feelings. Rapid growth of new American Party (1850) gives political expansion to nativism.
What is nativism?
What was the New Party formed in reaction to?
Democrat's success in gaining support of Catholic foreign-born voters, especially Irish immigrants.
What did the Irish think of slavery?
Shared southern views, had to constantly compete with them for jobs.
What brought many to nativism?
Reformist and individualistic attitudes of Whigs; most Whigs disapprove of Irish immigrants- they're Catholic, poor, don't like temperance movement.
What did nativist Whigs hold solely responsible for the crime increase?
When was the rapid urban growth?
What did nativism draw former Whigs to?
the New American Party.
What were the Know-Nothings?
Members of the New American Party, anti-immigrant party formed from the wreckage of the Whig Party and some disaffected northern Democrats in 1854.
What was the Republican Party?
Party that emerged in the 1850s in the aftermath of the bitter controversy over the Kansas-Nebraska Act, consisting of former Whigs, some northern Democrats, and many Know-Nothings.
When did the American Party split and what did this cause?
1855, splits into northern antislavery and southern proslavery Whigs, after split, many people who had voted for the Know-Nothings voted for the Republican Party (1854), expansionist, westward looking, free-soil policy.
Who were the Republicans?
Former Whigs who oppose slavery, Free-soil supporters who opposed the expansion of slavery but willing to tolerate it in the South, northern reformers concerned about temperance and Catholicism.
Who did the Republicans attract?
Economic core of the old Whigs: merchants and industrialists who wanted a strong central government to promote economic growth with a protective tariff
What did the sectional crisis allow?
The Republicans to be unified.
Main political questions of 1856?
Would the Republicans or Know-Nothings be stronger? Would the Democratic Party hold together?
Who were the Democratic nominations contenders in the election of 1856?
President Pierce (supported KN Act), Stephen Douglas (proposed KN Act), both have support of southern wing of party,
KN Act's affect on politicians who voted for or against it?
They couldn't satisfy both wings of the party.
Why was Buchanan excluded from the KN Act?
Had been ambassador to Britain at time, as compromise candidate.
Election of 1856?
Put Buchanan against Republican John Fremont, Know-Nothing party's candidate is Millard Fillmore. North is between Buchanan and Fremont, south is between Buchanan and Fillmore.
REsults of election of 1856?
Buchanan wins election with only 45% of popular vote b/c was the only national candidate.
What did results of election of 1856 show?
Republican party had clearly defeated American Party.
What did rapid Republicans do?
Posed a threat to national unity.
Combined popular vote for Buchanan and Fillmore show what?
Most voters nationally favor politicians who speak for national interests instead of sectional ones.
What had northerners decided around 1856?
Threat of slavery was greater than that posed by the new immigrants, nativism subsided.
What was the Lecompton Constitution?
A proslavery draft written in 1857 by Kansas territorial delegates elected under questionable circumstances; it was rejected by two governors, supported by Buchanan, and decisively defeated by Congress
What was the Panic of 1857?
banking crisis that caused a credit crunch in the North; it was less severe in the South, where high cotton prices spurred a quick recovery.
Cause of the Panic of 1857?
Technology plays a part. August 1857- failure of an Ohio investment house, news story flashed immediately over telegraph wires to Wall Street and other financial markets. Wave of selling panic, business failures and slowdowns that threw thousands out of work. Major cause was a sharp, temporary downturn in agricultural exports to Britain. Less harmful to South than North, affected cotton exports less than northern exports.Southerners take this as proof of their superiority of their economic system to the free-labor system of the North, boast.
John Brown's raid?
1860, what is stance of the political parties?
Whigs had collapsed from sectional differences, Democrats stand on brink of collapse
What did politicians and ordinary people believe in 1860?
there was no way to prevent the conflict between the North and South.
What had become evident of the Democratic party in 1860?
Had split into the northern and southern wings.
Where did the compromise party convene in 1860?
Charleston, SC, worst possible place EVA.
What do southerners insist Douglas do at election?
Support a federal slave code.
Where did the convention in 1860 end?
Where it began: deadlocked.
In June convention, what happens?
Democrats convene to compromise in north, 1/3 bolt, remaining 2/3 nominate Douglas
What was the Constitutional Union Party?
National party formed in 1860, mainly by former Whigs, that emphasized allegiance to the Union and strict enforcement of all national legislation.
What did John Brown's raid display?
Extremity of disunion.
By 1860, what was the stance of political parties?
The Whigs had collapsed from sectional differences, Democrats stood on the brink of collapse, politicians and ordinary people throughout nation believe there's no way to avoid conflict between the North and South.
What became official about the Democrats at the nominating conventions in 1860?
The Democratic part had split into northern and southern wings.
What was the Republican strategy in 1856?
"Victorious defeat", planned to carry al the states Fremont had won, plus Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana.
Leading Republican contenders in 1856?
Senator William H. Seward of NY, had enemies among party moderates who thought him too radical and nativists who had clashed with the NY Whig Party, Abraham Lincoln won the nomination on the third ballot.
What happened in the election of 1860 with the political parties?
Breckinridge supports slavery extension into territories, Lincoln stands firmly for its exclusion, Douglas tries to hold ground with popular sovereignty, Bell favors compromise.
How did Republicans appeal to northern voters in 1860?
Support for a homestead act (free western lands) for a transcontinental railroad, internal improvements, and a higher tariff.
What did Republicans preach about slavery in 1860?
Speak clearly against extension of slavery, seek to dispel their radical abolitionist image. Condemned Brown's raid, denied that Republicans favored the social equality of black people, affirmed that they sought to preserve the Union.
What did the Republicans really think?
Believed that the South would secede if Lincoln won.
Douglas is the only candidate who did what?
Spoke of the impending threat of secession, campaigns in North and South, presents himself as the only true national candidate.
What was the election of 1860 like?
Produces 2nd highest voter turnout in US history, two regional contests: Breckinridge v. Bell in the South, Lincoln v. Douglas in the North. Breckinridge dominates, Lincoln dominates. Lincoln won 54% of the vote in northern states, name had not appeared on the ballot in 10 southern states.
Who was the true winner of the election of 1860?
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