Terms in this set (60)
species present along with abiotic components of a given area
autotroph (self-feeder) organism that synthesize its own food from inorganic materials
organisms have to use chemical energy to replace worn out cell components (etc.) energy it takes to stay alive
production of new biomass
result of NPP. organic material that non-photosynthetic organisms can eat. NPP is critical because it represents the amount of energy availabe to other living components of an ecosystem: consumers and decomposers.
eat living organisms.primary consumers eat primary producers. secondary consumers eat primary consumers. tertiary consumers eat secondary, etc. Not a static label.
obtain energy by feeding on the remains of other organisms or waste products
dead plant tissues and animals.
Gross primary product
total amount of photosynthesis ina given area and time period
organisms obtaining food from same type of source occupy the same trophic level
connects the trophic levels in a particular ecosystem
Decomposer food chain
primary decomposers form the second tropic level (dead producers are first).
because most consumers feed on a wide array of organisms at multiple trophic levels , food chains are embedded in more complex food webs. these attempt to include many or most of the species eaten by a sample of organisms in an ecosystem joined by arrows indiciating a flow of energy.
consumer limits a prey population
when changes in top-down control cause conspicuous effects two or three links away in a food web
persisent organic pollutants (POP) like toxaphene increase at higher levels in a food chain (consumers sequester the toxins and do not excrete them, then are eaten. when lots are eaten by a bigger consumer, it takes on loooots of toxins)
the path that an element takes as it moves from abiotic systems through producers, consumers, and decomposers, and back again.
Soil organic matter
complex mixture of partially and completely decomposed detritus.
completely decayed organic matter. rich in c-conatining humic acids.
areas drained by a stream
Global water cycle
water evaporates out of ocean, precipitates back out. evaporation is larger than precip, so there is a net gain in h20 in atmosphere. Wind pushes water vapor over land, all of this will precipitate out over land.Water moves back to oceans by streams or groundwater (in soil) . NOT NET GAIN/LOSS
level where soil is saturated with stored water
Global nitrogen cycle
fixed from atmosphere by lightning or rain, or bacteria (also in ocean). Or industrially (fertilizers, planting of crops that fix N, and production of nitric oxide due to combustion of fossil fuels). Humans fix an equal amount of N as would naturally occur.
Global carbon cycle
documents movement of carbon among terrestrial ecosystems, the oceans, and the atmosphere.
carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere and keeps it from being radiated into space.
trace the mvmnt of h20 or elements among components of an ecosystems
Biologists anlayze these three components of the cycles:
1) nature and size of reservoirs where elements are stored or captured 2) processes responsible for moving elements among reservoirs and 3) interactions among cycles
Explain how human activities are altering the global water cycle
lowering water tables .
Groundwater not being replenished . farms and suburbs increases runoffs
timing of seasonal events is changing in many biomes as a result of climate change
Coral reef bleahcing
warm water causes coral to expel their photosynthetic algae. coral begins to die of starvation. coral also builds skeleton more slowly due to acidification (co2-->hco3-->lowers ocean ph)
Ecosystems have four components
2) primary producers
these are linked by flow of nutrients and energy.
Draw the relationship betwen the four components in an ecosystem where no photosynth occurs. soruce of energy is iron and sufur containing compounds (from magma)
As energy flows through a food web
much of it is lost. t
The productivity of terrestrial ecosystems is limited
by warmth and moisture
Productivity of aquaic ecosystems limited by
ecosystems have a ___ of productivity
pyramid of productivity beause energy transfer from one level t next is inefficient. biomass production is highest at lowest end.
In auqatic ecosytems productivity is highest..
in coral reefs, wetlands and estuaries
describe a food chain where a minimum of energy would be lost.
a food chain consisting of only primary producers and decomposers would minimize energy lost. if higher tropic level orgs are present, least energy would be lost if they are ectothermic, move very little, and have very efficient digestion.
Nutrient cycling is trongly affected by ...
rate of decomposition of the detritus. decomp rate is influenced by abiotic environmental conditions and quality of detritus
nutrients leak from ecosystems when..
biomass eaves. loss of vegetation= loss of nutrients.
why are avg global temps rising?
land use changes, burning fossil fuels increase carbon as co2 in atmosphere and co2 acts as a greenhouse gas
Under what conditions woud decomposition rates in terrestrial and marine enviros are low, creating a carbon sink due to build up of organic matter.
Decomposition is slowest in cold, wet temps on land in anoxic conditions in the ocean. stagnant water often becoems anoxic as decomps use up oxygen and it is not replenishdby atmosphere
propose two mechanisms that humans coud adopt to reduce global warming and expla the logic behind each.
alternatives to fossil fuels (reduce carbon emissions),reforestation
What is the difference between a community and an ecosystem
A. An ecosystem comprises a community and all the abiotic components of an area
Which of the following ecosystems would you expect to have the highest primary production?
D.tropical dry forest
Most of the net primary productivity that is consumed is used for what purpose?
A.respiration by primary consumers
What is biomagnification
C.accumulation of certain molecules at high concentration at upper trophic levels
Which of the following is normally the longest-lived reservoir for carbon?
Devegetation has what effect on ecosystem dyanmics
B. increases nutrient export
Explain the difference btwn a food chain and web. what do arrows in eachh type of diagram represent?
a food chain moves linearly (arrows in one direction up trophic levels). food web shows many of the connections that exist. arrows signify mvmnt of chemical energy by feeding
Suppose that cougars were reintroduced to a region where deer pops arecurrenty o high that most tree saplings and other low-growing plants are consumed. usingt the wolf reintor in yellowstone as a model, predict the trophic cascade that might occur
if cougars reduce the deer pop, plant pops should increase, more uneaten plant biomass will remain, and will be available to other primary consumers
explain why decomp rates are higher in some ecosystems than in others. how do decomposers reguakte nutrient availability in an ecosytsem
warmer, wetter climes speed decomp, cold slows it. low amounts of N and O2 aso limit decomp by limiting decomposer growth. wood is slow to decompose because it contains lignin. decomposition reguates nutrient availabiity by freeing them from detritus and making them available fto reenter food web
define bleaching and ocean acidification. expain how they are affecting coral reefs
Bleaching occurs due to higher temps in water. coral reefs expel photosynthethic algae. Extensive bleaching leads to starvation. ocean acidification occurs due to the HCO3 formed when CO2 is dissolved in the water. Ph drops, and makes it more difficult for coral reefs to form skeletons
name one positive and one negative feedback on global warming. explain why they're occuring
Positive: forest fires will increase with warmer temps, releasing more co2 into atmosphere
negative: NPP. greater plant biomass should increase sequestration of co2.
why are open oceans nutrient poor? whay are coastal areas and intertidal habitats relatively rich
no nutrient supply from land, litte upwelling in open oceann. intertidal and coastal areas receive nutrients from estuaries (nutrients come from inland) and upwellings of ocean
In an ecosystem energy flows..
from sunlight or inorrganic compounds with high PE to primary producers, to consumers and decomposers
at each hsubsequent trophic level
Npp is limited by..
conditions limiting rate of photosynthesis: temp, sunlight, water, nutriets
Explain why productivity diminishes with increasing trophic evel
at eahc level, most of the energy consumed is lost to heat, metabolism, or other maintenance activities. so only a small percentage goes into producing biomass.
Predict hat will happen to the foodweb in an ecosystem where global warming causes npp increase
more food will be available to primary consumers, resulting in biomass increases at each trophhic level. increase in biomass for decomposition will increase decomposer populations
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 56 Ecosystems and Global Ecosystems
Biology Ch. 56
Ecosystems (Energy and Nutrients)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Sys Path III poultry
Sys Path III Pancreas
Clin Path III Lipids
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 52: Population Ecology
Bio 182 Ch 52
Campbell Ap Biology Mastering Biology Chapter 17 Course Work