43 terms

MIE 330 - Exam 2 - Chapter 6

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Terms in this set (...)

Reliability
The consistency of a performance measure; the degree to which a performance measure is free from random error.

The consistency of a performance measure; the degree to which a performance measure is free from random error.
Validity
The extent to which a performance measure assesses all the relevant—and only the relevant— aspects of job performance.

A measure must be reliable if it is to have any validity. On the other hand, we can reliably measure many characteristics (like height) that may have no relationship to whether someone can perform a job. For this reason, reliability is a necessary but insufficient condition for validity.
Criterion related validity
A method of establishing the validity of a personnel selection method by showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job performance scores.
Predictive validation
A criterion-related validity study that seeks to establish an empirical relationship between applicants' test scores and their eventual performance on the job.
Concurrent validation
A criterion-related validity study in which a test is administered to all the people currently in a job and then incumbents' scores are correlated with existing measures of their performance on the job.
Content validation
A test validation strategy performed by demonstrating that the items, questions, or problems posed by a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems
Generalizability
The degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts.
Utility
The degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the effectiveness of selecting personnel in real organizations.
Legality
all selection methods should conform to existing laws and existing legal precedents
Types of selection methods
interviews
references
biographical data application blanks
physical ability tests
cognitive ability tests
personality inventories
work samples
honesty tests
drug tests
Situational interview
An interview procedure where applicants are confronted with specific issues, questions, or problems that are likely to arise on the job.

high predictive validity
it is experience based and future oriented
Cognitive ability tests
Tests that include three dimensions: verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability.

differentiate individuals based on their mental rather than physical capacities
Verbal comprehension
Refers to a person's capacity to understand and use written and spoken language.
Quantitative ability
Concerns the speed and accuracy with which one can solve arithmetic problems of all kinds.
Reasoning ability
Refers to a person's capacity to invent solutions to many diverse problems
Personality Inventories
While ability tests attempt to categorize individuals relative to what they can do, personality measures tend to categorize individuals by what they are like

extroversion
adjustment
agreeableness
conscientiousness
openness to experience
Work sample tests
Work sample tests
Assessment center
A process in which multiple raters evaluate employees' performance on a number of exercises.
Honesty testing
Many problems that confront society also exist within organizations, which has led to two new kinds of tests: honesty tests and drug-use tests.

polygraphs have been outlawed

concerns with being able to fake your way through it
--_____ is defined as the degree to which a measure is free from random error.
Reliability

One key standard for any measuring device is its reliability. Reliability is defined as the degree to which a measure is free from random error.
The _____ is a measure of the degree to which two sets of numbers are related.
correlation coefficient

The correlation coefficient is a measure of the degree to which two sets of numbers are related. The correlation coefficient expresses the strength of the relationship in numerical form.
When assessing the reliability of a measure, one might be interested in knowing how scores on the measure at one time relate to scores on the same measure at another time. This is called:
test-retest reliability.

When assessing the reliability of a measure, one might be interested in knowing how scores on the measure at one time relate to scores on the same measure at another time. If the characteristic being measured is supposedly stable (like intelligence or integrity) and the time lapse is short, this relationship should be strong. If it were weak, then the measure would be inconsistent—hence unreliable. This is called assessing test-retest reliability.
References
The extent to which performance on the measure is related to performance on the job is called:
validity

Validity is the extent to which performance on the measure is related to performance on the job. A measure must be reliable if it is to have any validity.
Which of the following statements is true regarding reliability and validity
Reliability of a measure is essential for it to have any validity.

A measure must be reliable if it is to have any validity. Reliability is a necessary but insufficient condition for validity.
If there is a substantial correlation between test scores and job-performance scores, _____ validity has been established.
criterion-related

One way of establishing the validity of a selection method is to show that there is an empirical association between scores on the selection measure and scores for job performance. If there is a substantial correlation between test scores and job-performance scores, criterion-related validity has been established.
_____ validation is a validity study that seeks to establish an empirical relationship between test scores taken prior to being hired and eventual performance on the job.
Predictive

Criterion-related validity studies come in two varieties: predictive validity and concurrent validity. Predictive validation seeks to establish an empirical relationship between test scores taken prior to being hired and eventual performance on the job.
Which of the following is the most accurate definition of concurrent validity?
It assesses the validity of a test by administering it to people already on the job and then correlating test scores with existing measures of each person's performance.

Criterion-related validity studies come in two varieties: predictive validity and concurrent validity. Concurrent validation assesses the validity of a test by administering it to people already on the job and then correlating test scores with existing measures of each person's performance.
Which of the following forms of validation becomes relatively more attractive as the sample available for validation becomes smaller?
Content validation

When sample sizes are small, an alternative test validation strategy, content validation, can be used. Content Validation is performed by demonstrating that the questions or problems posed by a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job.
_____ is defined as the degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts.
Generalizability

Generalizability is defined as the degree to which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts. There are two primary "contexts" over which people like to generalize: different situations (jobs or organizations) and different samples of people.
The degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the bottom-line effectiveness of the organization is known as the selection method's:
utility.

Utility is the degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhances the bottom-line effectiveness of the organization. In general, the more reliable, valid, and generalizable the selection method is, the more utility it will have.
The percentage of people chosen relative to the total number of people tested gives the _____ ratio.
selection

The selection ratio refers to the percentage of people selected relative to the total number of people tested.
Which of the following acts explicitly prohibits the granting of preferential treatment to minority groups?
The Civil Rights Act of 1991

The Civil Rights Act of 1991 explicitly prohibits the granting of preferential treatment to minority groups. Preferential treatment is often attractive because many of the most valid methods for screening people, especially cognitive ability tests and work sample tests, often are high in adverse impact.
As per the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, if any neutral-appearing practice happens to have adverse impact on those over 40, the employer must _____.
show business necessity to avoid a guilty verdict

Court interpretations of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act mirror those of the Civil Rights Act, in the sense that if any neutral-appearing practice happens to have adverse impact on those over 40, the burden of proof shifts to the employer, who must show business necessity to avoid a guilty verdict. The act does not protect younger workers (thus there is never a case for "reverse discrimination" here), and like the most recent civil rights act, it allows for jury trials and punitive damages.
Executive orders are monitored by the:
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs.

Executive orders are monitored by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), which issues guidelines (like the Affirmative Action Program Guidelines published by the Bureau of National Affairs in 1983) to help companies comply.
Which of the following is an example of experience-based situational interview?
Ron was asked to describe an event where his creativity led to effective problem solving.

Situational interview is an interview procedure where applicants are confronted with specific issues, questions, or problems that are likely to arise on the job. Situational judgment items come in two varieties: experience-based and future-oriented. Experience-based items require the applicant to reveal an actual experience he or she had in the past when confronting the situation.
References
Which of the following statements is true of situational interviews?
These interviews are particularly effective when assessing sensitive issues dealing with the honesty and integrity of candidates.

Research suggests that experience-based items appear to reduce some forms of impression management such as ingratiation better than future-oriented items. Situational interviews can be particularly effective when assessing sensitive issues dealing with the honesty and integrity of candidates.
References
_____ assess main facets such as verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability.
Cognitive ability tests

Cognitive ability tests differentiate individuals based on their mental rather than physical capacities. The three main facets of cognitive ability tests are: verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability.
_____ ability refers to a person's capacity to invent solutions to many diverse problems.
Reasoning

The three main facets of cognitive ability tests are: verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability. Reasoning ability, a broader concept, refers to a person's capacity to invent solutions to many diverse problems.
_____ ability concerns the speed and accuracy with which one can solve arithmetic problems of all kinds.
Quantitative

The three main facets of cognitive ability tests are: verbal comprehension, quantitative ability, and reasoning ability. Quantitative ability concerns the speed and accuracy with which one can solve arithmetic problems of all kinds.
John is open to experiences if he is:
curious and imaginative.

A person who is open to experiences is curious, imaginative, artistically sensitive, broad-minded, and playful.
A(n) _____ test attempts to simulate the job in a prehiring context to observe how the applicant performs in the simulated job.
work-sample

Work-sample tests attempt to simulate the job in a prehiring context to observe how the applicant performs in the simulated job. The degree of fidelity in work samples varies greatly.
The term _____ is used to describe a wide variety of specific selection programs that employ multiple selection methods to either rate applicants or job incumbents on their managerial potential.
assessment center

Generically, the term assessment center is used to describe a wide variety of specific selection programs that employ multiple selection methods to either rate applicants or job incumbents on their managerial potential. Someone attending an assessment center would typically experience work-sample tests such as an in-basket test and several tests of more general abilities and personality.
Which of the following personnel selection methods has low reliability as compared to others?
Reference checks