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Autonomic vs. Somatic Nervous System

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Somatic
1 Motor neuron (large, myelinated) from CNS
Neurotransmitter = ACh
Effector = skeletal muscle
Autonomic
(Sympathetic, Parasympathetic)
2 Motor neuron efferent pathway
Preganglionic neuron (myelinated)
Postganglionic neuron
Synapse at ganglia (outside CNS)
Neurotransmitter = ACh, NE
Effectors = Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands
Controls internal environment
Involuntary control
Dual Innervation
Most effectors innervated by fibers from both
Antagonistic Interactions
Stimulate vs. Inhibit Example: Heart rate symp.- increases parasym. - decreases
Cooperative Effects
Example: Both must participate in controlling external genitalia
Sympathetic
Fight-or-Flight Physical or emotional activities, stress Examples: (Table 14.4)
Parasympathetic
Resting and Digesting Energy conservation, restoration Examples: (Table 14.4)