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Early in development, the nervous system begins as a:
Tube surrounding a fluid filled cavity
Stem cells are important for which of the following developmental processes?
Proliferation
New neurons have been found to grow in all of the following cases except:
Spinal cord of mammals
As a rule, all vertebrate neurons develop during embryological stage. Among the few types of neurons that can develop in adulthood are:
Olfactory receptors
Brain cells that are neither neurons nor glia, but which are capable of dividing and then differentiating into neurons or gila are called:
Stem Cells
Which of the following best describes the process by which developing axons find their general target areas?
Chemical Attractions
What Is apoptosis
A program of "suicide" by a neuron
Developing neurons need ________ for survival/
Neurotrophins and Synaptic input
Which statement most accurately describes embryonic development of the nervus system in humans?
Far more neurons are produced than will ultimately survive
How much alcohol, if any, can a pregnant woman drink without worrying about the negative effects on her child?
Unknown, and therefore abstention is recommended
Varied environment with stimulation increases animals
branching of dendrites
After central nervous system damage, myelin:
secretes proteins that inhibit axon regrowth
A continuing sensation of an amputated body part is called?
Phantom limb
To date, the mosteffective laboratory method minimizing the damage resulting from stroke in non-human animals has been to:
Cool the brain
The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?
Ganglion cells
Because blood vessels and ganglion cell axons are almost absent near the _______ It has nearly unimpeded vision.
Fovea
In comparison to the rods, cones are more:
Sensitive to detail
Where does the optic nerve send most of its information?
To the lateral geniculate
Rods are to _________ as cones are to _______.
The pheriphery, the fovea
The fact that all colors on older tvs were created by combining only three different colors of light supports the __________ theory of color vision.
Trichromatic
The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is the result of:
Lateral inhibition in the retina
Magnocellular cells are to _____ as parvocellular cells are to _________
Movement; color
Cortical area _______ appears to be the first area in the brain where conscious visual perception occurs.
V1
Once within the cerebral cortex, the parvocellular pathway continues as a pathway sensitive to:
Details of shape
Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a ventral branch sensitive to:
Movement
An individual suffers damage to the temporal cotex, but maintains an intact parietal cortex. This may result in an inability to:
Describe the size or shape of objects they see
You are doing great Katie!! GOOD JOB!!!
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Axons release it at junctions with skeletal muscles.
Acetylcholine
The absenceof acetylcholine will cause a muscle to?
Relax
After motor neurons fire a few times in quick succession, subsequent action potentials release:
Less acetylcholine
. Compared to the average weekend jogger, a world class marathon runner probably has a higher percentage of which kind of fibers in his leg?
Slow twitched
A boxer's ability to sense the position of his arm and hand before planning a punch is dependent on the sense of:
Proprioeption
The premotor cortex:
Is active during preparations for a movement and less active during movement itself.
In contrast to people with posterior parietal damage, people with damage to certain parts of the occipital cortex outside the primary visual cortex:
Cannot accurately describe what they see but can reach out to grasp it.
Cells in the prefrontal cortex, premotor cortex, and _______ prepare for a movement, sending messages to the primary motor cortex.
Supplementary motor cortex
Watching another person shoot a basketball is most likely to activate ________ neurons in the brain of the person who is watching.
Mirror
Children with _________ were found to have less activity in the brain areas believed to contain mirror neurons.
Autism
Paths from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord are called the:
Corticospinal
Damage to one side of the dorsolateral tract below the level of medulla would most likely affect:
Fine motor control on the opposite side of the body.
Dorsolateral tract axons are responsible for movements in the:
Arms, hands, and toes
Movements near the midline of the body, such as bending and turning of the trunk, are controlled by which motor system?
Ventromedial tract
Damage to the cerebellum is most likely to interfere with:
rapid movements that require timing.
The finger-to-nose test is a common way of testing for the possible damage to what structure?
Cerebellum
. Cerebellum is to _____ as basal ganglia are to __________.
Timing vocabulary movements
L-dopa is most effective:
In the early to intermediate stages of parkinson's disease
Which of the following is TRUE of huntington's disease
The earlier the onset, the more rapid the deterioration
Suppose you fell into a cave and lost your watch, Without any time cues, your circadian rhythm would:
remain relatively stable
. A key area of the hypothalamus, particularly important in regulation of the biological clock, is the:
Suprachiasmatic nucleus
The SCN is located just above the:
Optic Chiasm
A small branch of the optic nerve, known as the ___________ extends directly from the retina to SCN.
Retinothalamic path
An electroencephalograph displays:
A net average of all the neurons' potentials.
. Alpha waves are characteristic of what type of activity?
Relaxed wakefulness
Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most characteristics of which sleep stage?
STAGE 2
Slow-wave sleep is compromised of:
STAGES 3 & 4
. With each succeeding stage of sleep (from 1 to 4)
Slow, large amplitude waves increase in number
EEG waves are larger when brain activity decreases because
Neurons are becoming more synchronized
The EEF record for REM sleep is most similar to which other sleep stage?
STAGE 1
PGO waves are associated with which of the following?
REM SLEEP
The onset of REM sleep begins with activity in the:
PONS
During ________, the pons sends inhibitory messages to the spinal cord
Rem Sleep
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