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anatomy and physiology week 3
Terms in this set (67)
unspecialized cells become specilized cells
Adult Stem Cell
found in adults and babies - these can become different types of cells
Embryonic Stem Cells
found in early embryos-this is where all our cells come from
covers surfaces, lines cavities, and forms glands
supports and forms the framework of all parts of the body.
contracts and produces movement
conducts nerve impulse
lines blood vessels and air sacs of lungs, permits exchange of nutrient, wastes and gases
lined kidney tubules and glands, secretes and reabsorbs water and small molecules
lines most digestive organs, absorbs nutrients, produces mucus
outer layer of skin, mouth, vagina, protects against abrasion, drying out, infection
lines ducts of sweat glands, secretes water and ions
lines epididymus, mammary glands, larynx, secretes mucus
exocrine glands have ducts or tubes to carry secretions away from the gland. The secretions may be carried to another organ, to a body cavity, or to the body surface. They are effective in a limited area near their source.
Examples: lacrimal glands, sebaceous glands ,and the digestive juices.
endocrine glands depend on the blood flowing through the gland to carry the secretion to another organ. These substances are called hormones. Hormones have specific effects on other tissues.
Endocrine glands are known as the ductless glands.
Examples: pituitary and thyroid gland
Circulating connective tissue
fluid, in a liquid matrix
eg: Blood, lymph
Generalized Connective Tissue
provides support and protection
Denser connective tissue like tendons, ligaments
Structural connective tissue
cartilage and bone
dense connective tissue
Tissues with many fibers.
Strong and flexible - made up of collagen
Three types: regular, irregular, elastic
mostly collagen in a random arrangement.
Covers kidneys, liver, glands
mostly collagen, arranged parallel to each other.
Can be pulled in one direction.
eg: Tendons, ligaments
made of elastic fibers. Can stretch out and return to original length.
eg: Vocal cords, blood vessels
structural connective tissue
Strong, solid - it is the basis for support
strong and flexible, used as a shock absorber and as a bearing surface that reduces friction between moving parts.
is found between segments of the spine.
is the tough elastic, translucent material that covers the end of the long bones.
made of osseous tissue, similar to cartilage in it's cellular structure
Inside the bones are nerves, blood vessels, osteoblasts and bone marrow, in which blood cells are developed.
works with tendons and bones to move the body. Also known as voluntary muscle. (it can be made to contract by conscious thought.
forms the bulk of the heart wall. Also known as myocardium
also known as visceral muscle. Forms the walls of the viscera or organs of the ventral body cavities.
The basic unit of the nervous system
consist of a nerve cell body plus small branches, called fibers.
carries messages to the nerve cell body
carries impulses away from the nerve cell body.
Groups of myelinated fibers form "white matter", so called because of the colour of the myelin.
some axons are insulated and protected by myelin.
Nervous tissue is supported by special connective tissue cells known as neuroglia or glial. They do not transmit nerve impulses
protect the brain from harmful substances, others get rid of foreign organisms and cellular debris; others form the myelin sheath
Epithelial serous membrane
line the walls of body cavities and are folded back onto the surface of internal organs, forming the outermost layer.
Epithelial Mucous membranes
line tubes and other spaces that open to the outside of the body.
Epithelial Cutaneous membrane
line the thoracic cavity and cover each lung.
is a sac that encloses the heart
is the largest serous membrane. It lines the walls of the abdominal cavity, covers the organs of the abdomen and forms supporting structures.
the serous membrane attached to the wall of a cavity or sac is known as the parietal layer.
the membrane attached to the organs.
The area between the layers of the serous membranes is called a potential space.
Synovial Membranes (connective tissue membrane)
thin connective tissues that line the the joint cavities. They secrete a lubricant to reduce friction between the ends of bones. This permits movement.
several layers of membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
fibrous bands or sheets that support organs and hold them in place
Continuous sheet of tissue that underlines the skin and contains adipose tissue to insulate and protect.
covers, separates and protects skeletal muscles.
refers to a decrease in the size of cells, resulting in a reduced tissue mass (insufficient nutrition, aging & reduced use of tissue).
refers to an increase in the size of individual cells, resulting in increased tissue mass
defined as an increase number of cells resulting in an enlarged tissue mass.
Hyperplasia & hypertrophy
may occur simultaneously, as seen in the uterine enlargement that occurs during pregnancy.
occurs when one mature cell type is replaced by a different mature cell type.
is the term applied to tissue in which the cells vary in size and shape, large nuclei are frequently present, and the rate of mitosis is increased. This situation may result from chronic irritation or infection.
refers to cells that are undifferentiated and have variable nuclei and cell structures. Anaplasia is associated with malignancy or cancer and is the basis for grading a tumor
means new growth, and a neoplasm is commonly called a tumor. Tumors are of two types, benign and malignant.
is the study of malignant tumors, otherwise known as cancer.
Groups of cells, similar in structure, arrange in a characteristic pattern, and specialized for the performance of specific tasks.
1. Epithelial tissue or epithelium forms a protective
covering for the body and all the organs.
It forms the lining of the intestinal tract, the respiratory
and urinary passages, the blood vessels, the uterus and
other body cavities.
It is the main tissue of the outer layer of the skin.
It is classified according to the shape and arrangement of its cells.
Squamous: flat and irregular.
Columnar: long and narrow.
2. The cells of some kinds of epithelium create mucous, digestive juices, sweat and other substances.
Digestion: goblet cells secrete a protective mucous
Respiratory: have cilia and goblet cells
Loose connective tissue
1. soft/semiliquid consistency.
Areolar: "space"--soft matrix with cells and fibers inside.
Found in membranes and around vessels and organs.
Adipose: adipocytes can store lots of fat as a reserve for the body.
Provides heat and padding for our organs and joint
Brain (nervous tissue)
center of all activity within the body. Each structure in the body is connected to the brain by the nerves.
The nerves come from all over the body and form a great trunk cable called the spinal cord, which in turn leads directly into the central switchboard of the brain.
1. line the walls of body cavities and are folded back onto
the surface of internal organs, forming the outermost
2. line the closed ventral cavities and do not communicate
with the outside of the body.
--They secrete a thin watery lubricant that allows organs
to move with a minimum of friction.
eg: pleurae (line the thoracic cavity, each lung, pericardium (sac that encloses the heart)
Form extensive linings in the digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive systems.
Some cells have cilia as in the nasal passages. Others don't.
means spread to distant sites by blood or lymphatics.
The tumor cells erode into a vein or lymphatic, travel through the body, and eventually lodge in a hospitable environment to reproduce and create one or more secondary tumors.
Only a few cells survive this transfer, but it only takes a few to start a new tumor
this type of cancer is by far the most common form of cancer. (Epithelium) Sites like the breast, skin etc.
Cancers of connective tissues of all kinds
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
anatomy and physiology week 1
anatomy and physiology week 2
anatomy and physiology week 5
anatomy and physiology week 6
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