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Characteristics of Language

-role governed
-tied to perception
-tied to speech communitites

Language is Symbolic

-arbitrary, abstract, ambiguous


the study of the sounds of language


The smallest units of sound in a spoken language.


the study of language meaning


The smallest units of meaning in a language.

Bound Morpheme

a word that needs a prefix or suffix to exist. cat(s)

Free Morpheme

a word that can exist by itself. cat


the grammar rules of a language


the rules for the use of language in social context and in conversation or the study of these rules

Identity Work

-Impression management: our own identities
-Altercasting: the identities we give to others

Relativist Perspective

language comes 1st then perception

Sapir Whorf Hypothesis

"The limits of my language mean the limits of my world." Language constructs our realities.

Lang, is Biased

"Even if any given terminology is a reflection of reality, by its very nature as terminology it must be a selection of reality; and to this extent it must function also as a deflection of reality.


kinda sorta


um err like er


very excellent most

tag questions

you love me, don't you?


you probably don't care but

Non verbal communication

symbols other than words that communicate can take @ the same time we are using language

Facial Expressions

most immediate form of communication;


the interpretation of a person's use of time.
mono-time is commodity; poly- flexible


using voice to communicate; rate, pitch, volume, pauses, inflection,


body movements; posture, gestures


gesture that has meaning in itself and with verbal communication; shrugging shoulders thumbs up


used to compliment our verbal messages can't stand alone. zig zag


use of touch to communicate, playful shove, controlling touch, ritual hand shake, task->masseuse.


Use of colors to communicate


Body endowment: our natural states of being; ig boobs
Body mod: tattoos hair dye makeup


use of objects to communicate; cell hone back packs; artwork mac or pc


use of space to communicate; we mark out territory with barriers we look away or hold up newspaper look down

Personal Space Edward Hall

Intimate- skin to skin
personal space- partners or bff 4ft
social space- business situation/acquaintance 12ft
ublic- mass comn 13ft

Virtuoso Listener

understand the difference between listening and hearing, implement appropriate and mindful response


physiological process of sound waves hitting eardrums

Mindful listening

giving careful and thoughtful attention and responses to the messages we receive


Silence, Questioning, paraphrasing, Empathizing, supporting(I'm there if you need me), analyzing(dissect), advising(offer advice), evaluating(offering your opinion/critique).

Pseudo listening

pretending to listen

Stage Hogging

when we are only interested in expressing what we have to say and we really don't care about what anyone else has to say.

Selective Listening

a listening style in which the receiver responds to messages that only interest him or her

Insulated Listening

A style in which the receiver ignores undesirable information. politics

Defensive Listening

interpret what people say in negative manner; "I like your haircut!" "What's wrong with it?"


a style in which the receiver listens carefully in order to gather information to use in an attack on the speaker.

Literal Listening

Listening only to the content level of meaning and ignoring the relationship level of meaning.

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