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The Western Middle East
Capital of Ottoman Empire, that was previously the largest and wealthiest city. Now known as Istanbul
What happened after WWI?
France and Germany divided it and Arabs wanted independence. But it was detached from the Ottoman Empire and put under British and French administration
What territories did Britain get?
Iraq, Jordan and Palestine
What territories did France get?
Syria and Lebanon
To declare a national home for Palestine
Movement for cultural nation of the Jews. Nationalism, assimilation. Only solution to the problem is a state of their own (classic 1990s nationalism)
Where would it be located? (Jews)
Suggested: Western Australia, Uganda but most probable: Palestine (where they're from originally)
UN Partition Plan 1947
Make Jerusalem a free city. Have a Jewish state and a Palestinian state
War of Independence 1948
Jews attacked state and crated Israel, ended up bigger than the UN expected. Egypt takes over Gaza strip
Results of War of Independence
Palestinian refugees are homeless. Problem: large Jewish state with large Arab population
Treated the refugees well, but others were admitted to camps
Arab-Israel Conflict - Main Issues
1. Israel as a State and Jewish as a State (Relations between Israel and its surrounding states)
2. Palestinian humanitarian problems (state-to-state relations)
Six-Day War 1967
Israeli fired first but Arabs were provoking the border so Israel was forced to take preemptive action
Which territories did Israeli occupy as a result of the war?
Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal. Israel won (militarily stronger)
October War / Yom Kippur War 1974
Egypt and Syria attacked Israel and won
When did the Suez Canal reopen?
Camp David Agreement 1978
Egypt = First Arab state to recognize state of Israel. Gradual withdrawal of Israeli forces to evacuate from Sinai
Recognizes state of Israel in 1994; West Bank no longer considered to be part of Jordan
Lebanon and Syria
Made Golan Heights part of Israel which was one of the foundation problems
Right of Return
Palestinians wrongfully expelled. Symbolic right (can't have 2 Arab states)
Notion that Israel should be a civic nation
Israeli fundamentalism. Weakened secularists who were corrupt in power
West Bank, Gaza Strip and Israel together is the only solution
Authoritarian, non-independent country