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The Western Middle East


Capital of Ottoman Empire, that was previously the largest and wealthiest city. Now known as Istanbul

What happened after WWI?

France and Germany divided it and Arabs wanted independence. But it was detached from the Ottoman Empire and put under British and French administration

What territories did Britain get?

Iraq, Jordan and Palestine

What territories did France get?

Syria and Lebanon

Balfour Declaration

To declare a national home for Palestine


Movement for cultural nation of the Jews. Nationalism, assimilation. Only solution to the problem is a state of their own (classic 1990s nationalism)

Where would it be located? (Jews)

Suggested: Western Australia, Uganda but most probable: Palestine (where they're from originally)

UN Partition Plan 1947

Make Jerusalem a free city. Have a Jewish state and a Palestinian state

War of Independence 1948

Jews attacked state and crated Israel, ended up bigger than the UN expected. Egypt takes over Gaza strip

Results of War of Independence

Palestinian refugees are homeless. Problem: large Jewish state with large Arab population


Treated the refugees well, but others were admitted to camps

Arab-Israel Conflict - Main Issues

1. Israel as a State and Jewish as a State (Relations between Israel and its surrounding states)
2. Palestinian humanitarian problems (state-to-state relations)

Six-Day War 1967

Israeli fired first but Arabs were provoking the border so Israel was forced to take preemptive action

Which territories did Israeli occupy as a result of the war?

Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula and Suez Canal. Israel won (militarily stronger)

October War / Yom Kippur War 1974

Egypt and Syria attacked Israel and won

When did the Suez Canal reopen?


Camp David Agreement 1978

Egypt = First Arab state to recognize state of Israel. Gradual withdrawal of Israeli forces to evacuate from Sinai


Recognizes state of Israel in 1994; West Bank no longer considered to be part of Jordan

Lebanon and Syria

Made Golan Heights part of Israel which was one of the foundation problems

Right of Return

Palestinians wrongfully expelled. Symbolic right (can't have 2 Arab states)


Notion that Israel should be a civic nation


Israeli fundamentalism. Weakened secularists who were corrupt in power

Mixed State

West Bank, Gaza Strip and Israel together is the only solution

Palestinian government

Authoritarian, non-independent country

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