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Final Exam Chapter 4- Becoming a better listener


An automatic, involuntary process in which sound waves stimulate nerve impulses to the brain

Discriminative listening

Phase of listening in which we detect sounds of spoken communication

comprehensive listening

Phase of listening in which we focus on, understand, and interpret spoken messages

empathic listening

Phase of listening in which we suspend judgment, allow speakers to be heard, and try to see things from their points of view

appreciative listening

Phase of listening in which we enjoy the beauty of messages, responding to such factors as the simplicity, balance, and the eloquence of language

critical listening

listening with careful analysis and evaluation of message content

constructive listening

Search for the value that messages may have for your life, despite their defects

receiver apprehension

Fear of misinterpreting, inadequately processing and/or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages sent by others

trigger words

Words that arouse such powerful feelings that they interfere with the ability to listen critically and constructively


listening to only part of a message, the part the listener wants to hear


The tendency of listeners to interpret the positions of a speaker with whom they agree as closer to their own views than they actually are

contrast effect

Seeing positions different than yours as being more distant than they actually are


Information that can be verified by observation or expert testimony


Assumptions based on incomplete information


Expressions of personal attitude or belief offered without supporting material


Political speakers who try to inflame feelings without regard to the accuracy or adequacy of their claims in order to promote their own agendas


An evaluation of a speech that emphasizes strengths as well as weaknesses and that focuses on how a speaker might improve

universal listener

Listening as though you represent all who might be affected by a message

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