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18 terms

Final Exam Chapter 4

Final Exam Chapter 4- Becoming a better listener
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Hearing
An automatic, involuntary process in which sound waves stimulate nerve impulses to the brain
Discriminative listening
Phase of listening in which we detect sounds of spoken communication
comprehensive listening
Phase of listening in which we focus on, understand, and interpret spoken messages
empathic listening
Phase of listening in which we suspend judgment, allow speakers to be heard, and try to see things from their points of view
appreciative listening
Phase of listening in which we enjoy the beauty of messages, responding to such factors as the simplicity, balance, and the eloquence of language
critical listening
listening with careful analysis and evaluation of message content
constructive listening
Search for the value that messages may have for your life, despite their defects
receiver apprehension
Fear of misinterpreting, inadequately processing and/or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages sent by others
trigger words
Words that arouse such powerful feelings that they interfere with the ability to listen critically and constructively
filtering
listening to only part of a message, the part the listener wants to hear
assimilation
The tendency of listeners to interpret the positions of a speaker with whom they agree as closer to their own views than they actually are
contrast effect
Seeing positions different than yours as being more distant than they actually are
facts
Information that can be verified by observation or expert testimony
inferences
Assumptions based on incomplete information
opinions
Expressions of personal attitude or belief offered without supporting material
demagogues
Political speakers who try to inflame feelings without regard to the accuracy or adequacy of their claims in order to promote their own agendas
critique
An evaluation of a speech that emphasizes strengths as well as weaknesses and that focuses on how a speaker might improve
universal listener
Listening as though you represent all who might be affected by a message