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Utilitarianism is the moral theory that holds that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the balance of good over evil that is produced by that action.


focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions in and of themselves, rather than on the consequences of those actions

Virtue Ethics

A normative ethical theory that says that an action is morally right just because it would be done by a virtuous person acting in character

Singer (story)

Bob and the Bugatti

Speciesism View

Humans who think they are the top of the food chain, we only look at ourselves and look at ourselves as a priority

Sanctity of Human Life

There is nothing unique about humans, their life on the spectrum is equal

Why does Singer Oppose the "Sanctity of Life"?

-Denies that there is a radical difference between human/animal life value
-unjust discrimination

Unjust Discrimination

Treating individuals differently without justification, to treat individuals differently it must be justified by underlying difference in capacity

What solution does Singer offer for resolving inconsistencies in the way we treat animals and humans?

1.) hold constant our attitudes to other species and change our attitude toward our own species
2.) hold constant our attitude toward member of our own species, change our attitudes toward other species
3.) change our attitudes toward both humans and non humans

Example for Singer & Speciesism

Primate VS retarded Infant
-Primate has more capability
-differentiate by intellectual, both lives are equally valuable

Can you think of a reason for refraining from eating dogs that foer ignores?

Eliminate Species membership, equal moral consideration

Steinback --Prelimary Considerations

-"that could be me"
-we feel CLOSER IDENTIFICATION with severly retarded infants
-horrified if a retarded infant was used in med research


The ability to have capability and competence

Right to autonomy

ability to make important decisions for yourself


Past life a will then got Alzheimer,...believe should go with past

Evidentiary View

respect persons ability to make decision at anytime
-because each person generally knows what is in his own best interests better than anyone else. (223)

Integrity View

reflects the life of the person when competent

Jehovahs Witnesses

Blood transfusions

Retributivist (death penalty)

Backway looking, gives what people what they deserve

Utilitarian (death penalty)

forward looking, what would be the consequence of death +,-
-once kill murderer you cant kill anyone else

Difference between revenge and retribution

revenge is personal, laden, have deep seeded,retribution doesnt need to be emotional its what people deserve, rational, cool headed

Lex Talionis

an eye for an eye, demands symmetrical punishment.
Some cases illegal to carry out, ex rape, molestation

Equal Punishment

Systematically Punished, amount of suffering has to be equal to what the other person should suffer
-hard to determine how much suffer
-hard to measure how to make perpetrator suffer equally

Proportional Punishment

-more sever crimes get more severe punishments, same with less---less


-most severe should be death, no human life is completely worthless

What is the symbolic value with abolishing the death penalty ..what is nathans argument against this

show respect for human life
-nathans argument ---- we express respect for life you want to punish those who take away human life

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