Essentials of strength training and conditioning- ch 18
Terms in this set (84)
As the duration of the aerobic endurance event increases, so does the proportion of the total ___ demand that must be met by aerobic metabolism
A high correlation has been shown to exist between___&___ in aerobic endurance events
aerobic endurance training programs should be designed to improve___
In aerobic endurance events, the best competitor among athletes with similar VO2max values is typically the person who can sustain aerobic energy ___ at the highest percentage of his or her VO2max without accumulating large amounts of___ in the muscle and blood
the speed of movement or percentage of VO2max at which a specific blood lactate concentration is observed or the point at which blood lactate concentration begins to increase above resting levels
Several studies have shown that an athlete's ___ appears to be a better indicator of his or her aerobic endurance performance than VO2max.
the exercise intensity at which maximal lactate production is equal to maximal lactate clearance within the body
maximal lactate steady state
The ___ is considered by many to be a better indicator of aerobic endurance performance than either VO2max or the lactate threshold
maximal lactate steady state
What is clear from this information is that aerobic endurance athletes must improve their lactate threshold or maximal lactate steady state. This requires athletes to conduct some training at elevated levels of blood and muscle ___ to maximize training improvements
A measure of the energy cost of activity at a given exercise velocity
Athletes with a high exercise economy expend___ energy during exercise to maintain a given exercise velocity
An improvement in ___ can enhance maximal aerobic power (VO2max) and lactate threshold.
Aerobic Endurance training Program Design Variables: (5)
Step 1: Exercise mode
Step 2: Training frequency
Step 3: Training intensity
Step 4: Exercise duration
Step 5: Exercise progression
The ___ refers to the specific activity performed by the athlete: cycling, running, swimming, and so on
Remember that the more ___ the training mode is to the sport, the greater the improvement in performance.
the number of training sessions conducted per day or per week
The frequency of training sessions will depend on an interaction of exercise___&___, the
___ of the athlete, and the specific sport ___.
A number of studies have shown increased injury rates with training sessions more frequent than ___ times per week
Research has shown that it is necessary to train more than ___ times per week in order to increase VO2max
___ from individual training sessions is essential if the athlete is to derive maximum benefits from the subsequent training session. Exercise performance has been shown to improve following relative rest from difficult training sessions
Obtaining sufficient ___, becoming ___, and restoring ___sources are critical issues for the athlete during recovery
If the training session was especially long or intense, then postexercise ___intake is important for replacing the muscle and liver glycogen stores that were likely depleted.
Adaptations in the body are specific to the ___, or effort expended during a training session
High-intensity aerobic exercise increases ___&___ function and allows for improved oxygen delivery to the working muscles.
cardiovascular and respiratory
Increasing exercise intensity may also benefit skeletal muscle adaptations by affecting muscle fiber ___.
As exercise intensity is increased, greater recruitment of Type __ muscle fibers occurs to meet the increased power needs. This training stimulus allows those fibers to become more aerobically trained, thereby possibly improving overall aerobic performance.
An exercise intensity that is too low does not ___ the body's systems and induce the desired physiological adaptations, whereas an intensity that is too high results in ___ and a premature end to the training session
The most accurate methods for regulating exercise intensity are to monitor ___ consumption during exercise to determine its percentage of VO2max or to periodically measure the blood ___ concentration to determine the relationship to the lactate threshold.
___ is likely the most frequently used method for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity.
the difference between an athlete's maximal heart rate and his or her resting heart rate. (2)
Heart rate reserve (HRR)
If laboratory testing is unavailable, then the individual's ___ can be used as the basis for determining exercise intensity
age-predicted (estimated) maximal heart rate (APMHR)
Two methods for target heart rate calculations:
The percentage of maximal heart rate (MHR) method.
It has been determined that age contributes __% of the variability of heart rate; the effects of other factors such as mode of exercise and fitness level must also be considered with the use of heart rate to monitor intensity
using estimations of exercise intensity via estimated maximal heart rate equations provides no information about the intensity associated with the ___
___ can also be used to regulate intensity during aerobic endurance training. Typically, the 15-point Borg scale is used, although the category-ratio scale could be used as well.
ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)
the RPE-intensity relationship can be influenced by various external ___ factors
___ may also be used to prescribe exercise intensity. One of these is equal to 3.5 ml · kg-1 · min-1 of oxygen consumption and is considered the amount of oxygen required by the body at rest.
Metabolic equivalents (METs)
Assigning MET values as part of an aerobic exercise prescription requires the strength and conditioning professional to know (or estimate) an athlete's maximal ___ in order to be able to calculate an exercise MET level (40).
Cyclists may use ___ cranks and hubs to regulate exercise intensity. Metabolic rate is closely related to ___ production.
Using___ as an intensity measure also allows reproducible intensity efforts regardless of environmental conditions, which may influence other measurements of intensity such as heart rate and training velocity
Exercise ___ refers to the length of time of the training session. This aspect of a training session is often influenced by the exercise intensity
the longer the exercise duration, the___ the exercise intensity
Research seems to indicate that aerobic fitness does not decrease for up to___ weeks when intensity of training is maintained and frequency decreases to as few as ___ times per week
Depending on the goals of the athlete, progression of an aerobic endurance exercise program initially involves increasing the ___, ___, &___ of exercise
frequency, intensity, duration
Typically, exercise frequency, intensity, or duration should not increase more than __% each week
Progression of training intensity should be monitored very carefully to avoid ___.
When it is not feasible to increase frequency or duration, progression can occur with ___ manipulation.
The intensity for ___ is equivalent to approximately 70% of VO2max (about 80% of maximum heart rate)
long, slow distance training (LSD)
long, slow distance training (LSD):
The training distance should be ___ than race distance, or the duration should be at least as long as __-__
30 mins- 2 hours
The physiological benefits derived from LSD training primarily include enhanced ___ &___function, improved ___ energy production and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, and increased utilization of ___ as a fuel
cardiovascular and thermoregulatory
These changes are likely to improve the ___ intensity by enhancing the body's ability to clear lactate. Chronic use of this type of training also causes a change in the ___ characteristics of the involved muscles and an eventual shift of Type IIx fibers to Type __ fibers
Intensity is lower than that of competition, which may be a ___if too much LSD training is used.
Additionally, LSD training does not stimulate the ___ patterns of muscle fiber recruitment that are required during a race, and this may result in adaptations in muscle fibers that are not used during competition.
Training that employs an intensity at or slightly higher than race competition intensity. The intensity corresponds to the lactate threshold; therefore, this type of training is also often called ___ or ___
aerobic/anaerobic interval training
There are two ways to conduct pace/tempo training:
steady and intermittent
___ pace/tempo training is continuous training conducted at an intensity equal to the lactate threshold for durations of approximately 20 to 30 minutes
The purpose of pace/tempo training is to stress the athlete at a specific ___ and improve ___ production from both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism
During ___ pace/ tempo training, the intensity is the same as for a steady threshold workout, but the training session consists of a series of shorter intervals with brief recovery periods between work intervals
During pace/tempo training, it is important to avoid exercising at a(n) ___ intensity than the prescribed pace
The primary objective for pace/tempo training is to develop a sense of ___ and enhance the body systems' ability to sustain exercise at that pace.
Pace/ tempo training involves the same pattern of muscle fiber recruitment as is required in ___. The benefits derived from this type of training include improved ___ and increased ___.
Interval training involves exercise at an intensity close to VO2max. The work intervals should last between __ and __ minutes, although they can be as short as __ seconds. The rest intervals for __- to __-minute work intervals should be equal to the work interval, thereby keeping the work:rest ratio (W:R) at 1:1
-Exercise at an intensity close to ___ for intervals of 3 to 5 minutes. Work:rest ratio shouldbe ___.
-This allows athletes to train at intensities close to VO2max for a ___ amount of time.
-It increases VO2max and enhances ___ metabolism.
-Method should be used ___, and only when training athletes with a firm aerobic endurance training base.
is conducted at intensities greater than VO2max, with the work intervals typically lasting between 30 and 90 seconds.
Repetition training (REPS)
-Work:rest ratio is about ___
-___ recovery periods needed between sessions
-Improved running ___&___
-Increased ___&___ for anaerobic metabolism
type of training that combines other methods of training
-___ running (~70% VO2max) combined with ___or short, fast bursts (~85-90% VO2max)
-Can be adapted for cycling and swimming
-Benefits are likely to include
-Improved running ___ and ___ utilization
The various types of training induce different physiological responses. A sound program should incorporate ___ types of training into the athlete's weekly, monthly, and yearly training schedule
off-season sometimes called ___
Off-Season (Base Training)
-Begin with ___ duration and ___ intensity. Gradually ___ intensity and, to a lesser extent, duration.
The priority in off-season training is to develop a base of ___ fitness. Periodic increases in exercise___ occur when an athlete has adapted to the training stimulus and requires additional overload for continued improvements
Focus on increasing ___, maintaining or reducing ___, and incorporating all types of training.
-Program should be designed around ___, with ___-intensity and ___-duration training just before race days.
Postseason (Active Rest)
-Focus on ___ from the competitive season while maintaining sufficient fitness.
___ training duration and intensity are typical for this active rest phase, but enough overall exercise or activity should be performed to maintain a sufficient level of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and lean body mass
A sound year-round aerobic endurance training program should be divided into ___ with specific ___ and objectives designed to improve performance ___&___.
a mode of training that can be used to maintain general conditioning in athletes during periods of reduced training due to injury or during recovery from a training cycle.
Cross-training may reduce the likelihood of ___ injuries because it distributes the physical stress of training to different muscle groups than those used during training
___ occurs when the athlete reduces the training duration or intensity or stops training altogether due to a break in the training program, injury, or illness
In the absence of an appropriate training stimulus, the athlete experiences a loss of the physiological ___ brought about by training
Aerobic endurance athletes can minimize the effects of detraining by continuing to use their primary mode of exercise at ___ frequency and intensity, if possible
an important component of the training program as aerobic endurance athletes prepare for major competition. involves the systematic reduction of training duration and intensity, combined with an increased emphasis on technique work and nutritional intervention.
The objective of tapering the training regimen is to attain peak performance at the time of ___
Improvement in ___-term exercise performance
___recovery from injuries
Prevention of ___ injuries and reduction of___ imbalances
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