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191 terms

surgical tech certifying exam study guide Anatomy section

STUDY
PLAY
which of the following structures is located in the alveolar processes?
teeth
the portion of the stomach surrounding the lower esophageal sphincter is called the
cardia
the islets of langerhans secrete
insulin
the area in the duodenum where the common bile duct and the pancreatic duct empty is called the
ampulla of vater
the primary function of the gallbladder is to
store bile
the plicae circulares, microvilli and villi are
structures that increase surface absorption area in the small intestine
the first part of the small intestine is the
duodenum
the appendix is attached to the
cecum
the double layered apron like structure that hangs from the lower border of the stomach is the
greater omentum
the main function of the large intestine is to
reabsorb water and electrolytes
a chemical reaction that provides energy by the breakdown of food molecules is called
catabolism
which of the following substances is the body's preferred source of energy
carbohydrates
the process by which glucose is stored in the liver and skeletal muscle cells as glycogen is
glycogenesis
the structure that binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall is the
mesentary
the salivary glands located in the front of the ear that become inflamed and enlarged during mumps are the
parotid
the catabolism of fats priduces which of the following substances
ketone bodies
vitamins A, D, E and K are absorbed in the
intestine
the organ that lies eosterior to the greater curvature of the stomach and is connected by a duct to the duodenum is the
pancreas
when body cells require energy what molecule is broken down
ATP molecule
the outer layer of the intestine is the
serosa
the cricoid cartilage is a
ring of cartilage forming the inferior walls of the larynx
the passageway for foods and liquids into the digestive system and for air into the respiratory system is the
pharynx
the larynx is located between the
pharynx and trachea
the vocal cords are licated in the
larynx
which structure has three divisions consisting of naso, oro, and layngeal
pharynx
the function of the trachea is to
conduct air to and from the lungs
the space between the vocal cords is called the
glottis
the nasal cavity is divided into two portions by the
septum
the structure that drains excess tears to the nasal cavity, causing the nose to run is the
nasolacrimal duct
the cartilaginous nasal septum lies upon which none
vomer
the structure that connects the middle ear and the throat allowing the eardrum to vibrate freely is the
eustachian tube
another name for the tympanic membrane is the
eardrum
the winding cone-shaped tube of the inner ear is the
cochlea
the nasal sinus located between the nose and the orbits is the
ethmoid
whch ossicle of the middle ear covers the oval window
stapes
the large leaf-shaped laryngeal cartilage that acts as a trap door over the larynx is the
epiglottis
which part of the ear is responsible for equilibrium
semicircular canals
a term referring to a waxy secretion in the external ear canal is
cerumen
which of the following structures is not an ossicle of the middle ear
vestibule
the fluid within the membranous labyrinth is called
endolymph
in the physiology of hearing, sound waves collect in the ______and pass on to hit the__________
external auditory canal, tympanic membrane
striated voluntary muscle tissue is found in the ___________muscle tissue
skeletal
the white, tough layer of the eye that gives it its shape is the
sclera
the layer of the eye that is clear, covers the iris and contains no blood vessels is the
cornea
the layer of the eye that absorbs light rays and nourishes the retina through its numerous blood vessels is the
choroid
which muscle alters the shape of the lens of the eye to accommodate near or far vision
ciliary muscle
what structure regulates the amount of light entering the eye and assists in obtaining a clear image
iris
intraocular pressure is primarily dependent on
aqueous humor
at the junction of the sclera and cornea is a venous sinus known as the
canal of schlemn
the smooth intrinisic muscle that alters the shpae of the eye lens is the
ciliary body
the ciliary body is part of which layer of the eye
vascular
a capillary network of blood vessels within the renal cortex that functions as a filter is called the
glomerulus
the triangular area of the bladder that is formed by the two openings of the ureters and the opening of the urethra is known as the
trigone
gerota's fascia is located
around the kidney
the kidneys are positioned
retroperitoneally
the functional unit of the kidney responsible for removing waste and regulating fluid is the
nephron
the most abundant extracellular ion necessary for the transmission of impulses is
sodium
the prostate gland secretes
alkaline fluid
the first step of urine production in which fluids and dissolved substances are forced through a membrane by pressure is called
glomerular filtration
sperm are produced by the
seminiferous tubules
the cup like extensions of the kidney pelvis that collect urine from the pyramids are
calyces
the notch on the kidney through which the ureters exit is the
hilum
which of the following is the principal male hormone produced in the testes and responsible for sexual characteristics
testosterone
the comma shaped organ that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the
epidiymis
the only artery in the body that carries unoxygenated blood is the
pulmonary artery
teh pacemaker of the hrart is the
SA node
which arteries are formed by the bufurcation of the abdominal aorta
iliac
the process by which blood cells are formed is known as
hemopoiesis
which of the following arises from the left ventricle
aorta
the pancreas lies behind the sotmach and duodenum in the right and left upper quadrants and is divided into ______portions
three
which organ is responsible for the synthesis of man of the coagulation factors
liver
the atrioventrucular (AV) valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the
bicuspid
the inner layer of an artery is known as the
intima
which of the following vessels arises from the right ventricle
pulmonary artery
which of the following vessels do not empty into the right atrium
pulmonary veins
the large artery found behind the knee is the
popliteal
the large artery that arises from the left side of the aortic arch and descends into the arm is the
subclavian
the medial malleolus is part of which bone
tibia
the sutures of the skull are examples of
synarthrosis
which characterisitic does not belong to a synovial joint
synchondrosis containing hyaline cartilage
which of the following is an example of a saddle joint
thumb and trapezium
smooth sustained contractions produced by several very rapid stimuli are called
tetanus
the dense white fibrous covering around bone is the
periosteum
an example of a short bone is the
wrist
a large bony process found on the femur is a
trochanter
the foramen magnum is found in which bone
occipital
an example of a flat bone is the
cranial bones
the acromion is part of which bone
scapula
the olecranon is part of which bone
ulna
which of the following is not a carpal
styloid
the only bone in the body that does not articulate with another is the
hyoid
the shaft of a bone is known as the
diaphysis
teh extremity or end of a bone is known as the
epiphysis
another name for spongy bone is
cancellous
the vertebrae are examples of what type of bone
irregular
teh area of a bone where growth occurs until early adulthood is the
epiphyseal plate
what bones from the greater portion of the sides sand roof of the cranial cavity
parietal
the structure that serves as the socket for the head of the femur is the
acetabulum
where are cruciate ligaments found in the knee
lateral and medial in the knee
a triangular muscle that abducts the arm and covers the shoulder is the
deltoid
the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and the vastus intermedius are muscles that extend the legs and are known as the
quadriceps
the muscle that flexes and supinates the forearm and covers the anterior portion of the upper arm is the
biceps brachii
the muscle that forms the bulk of the upper calf is the
gastrocnemius
the mandible articulates with the maxillae
temporal bone
the thoracic spine contains how many vertebrae?
12
the inner lining of the uterus is the
endometrium
the walls of the vagina are lined with
mucous membrane
all of the following ligaments maintain the position of the uterus except the
ovarian ligament
the perineum is the
area between the vagina and the anus
fertilization of the ovum generally occurs in the
fallopian tubes
the hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics is
estrogen
the structure that provides an exchange of nutrients and wastes between the fetus and mother and secretes the hormones necessary to maintain the pregnancy is
placenta
in the ovary, a granular yellow body that develops after the extrusion of an ovum is the
corpus luteum
the finger like projections on the end of the fallopian tubes are
fimbiae
the funnel shaped open distal end of each fallopian tube is called a/an
infundibulum
the portion of the uterus above the level of the uterine tubes is called the
fundus
the elevated adipose tissue over the symphysis is called the
mons pubis
the ovary is attached to the uterus by the
ovarian ligament
the middle layer of the uterus composed of muscle is the
myometrium
the outermost covering of the brain and spinal cord is the
dura mater
the brain contains four fluid filled spaces called the v
venricles
the area of the brain that controls respiration is the
medulla oblongata
all thought takes place in the
cerebral cortex
the basic unit of the nervous system is the
neuron
the cranial nerve that contains special fibers for hearing as well as for balance is
VIII
the peripheral bervous system contains
cranial and spinal nerves
the muscle tone, coordination of voluntary muscles and balance are controlled in the
cerebellum
the largest part of the brain is the
cerebrum
which cranial verve emerges from the medulla passes through the skull and descends throught the neck region into the thorax and abdominal region
X
the cranial nerve that carries motor fibers to the tongue and sensory impulses from the tongue to the brain is the
hypoglossal
which cranial nerve can be tested for sensations of pain touch and temperature with the use of a safety pin and hot and cold objects
V
which cranial nerve carries impulses for sense of smell
I
neurons that conduct impulses to the cardiac muscles are part of the
autonomic nervous system
the contraction of involuntary muscles are controlled by the
autonomic nervous system
the neuroglia are cells that
support and protect
teh cytoplasmic process of a nueron that conducts impulses away from the cell body is a/an
axon
which area of the brain produces subconscious skeletal muscle movements required for coordination and balance
cerebellum
the part of the brain that is a continuation of the spinal cord and forms the inferior protion of the brain stem is the
medulla
the fifth cranial nerve is also called the
trigeminal nerve
which of the following neuroglia are star shaped and attach nerons to their blood vessels
astrocytes
where is cerebrospinal fluid formed
ventricles
the diencephalon is composed of the
thalamus and hypothalamus
the wisp like roots of the verves at the end of the spinal cord are called the
cauda equina
meuron axons that are surrounded by a multilayer white phospholipid segmented covering are called
myelinated neurons
chemicals released by neurons to increase or inhibit impulses are called
neurotransmitters
the bridge connecting the spinal cord with the brain is the
pons
the inner lining of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is composed of
epithelium
ninety six percent of the bodys mass is made up of
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen
the essential component of hemoglobin is
iron
a pH level refers to
acidity vs. alkalinity levels
the basic living structural and functional unit of the body is known as the
cell
what is the function of phagocytic white blood cells
engulf and destroy bacteria
the result of fertilization of gametes is a/an
zygote
the roof of the mouth is formed by the
hard and soft palates
the teeth are composed primarily of
dentin
the set of teeth that erupt at about six months of age and are lost are the
deciduous teeth
the main duct of the pancreas is the
duct of wirsung
which of the following glands are located in the stomach
parietal cells
the portion of the stomach above the level of the lower esophogeal sphinchter is the
fundus
which of the following substances are absorbed in the stomach
alcohol
the function of the small intestine is
digestion and absorption of nutrients
the small intestine is drained by teh
hepatic portal vein
the pouches of the large intestine are called
haustra
the secretion of gastric juices is regulated by the impulses of the
V nerve
testosterone is secreted by the
cell of leydig
inhibin is produced by the
sertoli's cells
the most abundant ion in the body is
calcium
the conduction fibers that run from the AV node down the interventricular septum are referred to as the
bundle of His
the left cronary artery divides into the
anterior descending and circumflex
which of the following structures are found in the ventricles of the heart
papillary muscles
the function of hemoglobin is to
carry oxygen
albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen are all
plasma proteins
the large vein that drains the head is the
jugular
which of the following arteries does not arise directly from the aorta
vertebral
the vessel that delivers blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver is the
hepatic protal vein
which of the following is not part of the immune system
thyroid
the thymus gland functions in immunity by producing
T cells
the structure that is located anterior to the esophoagus and extends from the larynx to the fifth thoracic vertebrae is the
trachea
the portion of the small intestine that joins the large intestine is the
ileum
another name for the folds of the stomach is
rugae
the longest heaviest and strongest bone in the body is the
femur
the anterior chamber of the eye lies
behind the cornea and in front of the iris
aqueous humor is found within the
anterior cavity
the ureters enter the bladder
medially from the posterior aspect
which membrane lines the thoracic cavity
pleura
the region between the lungs is the
mediastinum
which duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum
common bile
which of the following is not part of the stomach
hilum
which ligament stabilizes the duodenojejunal angle
treitz
what valve is located between the left upper and lower chambers of the heart
mitral
which of the following structures would not be found in a blood vessel
tunica vaginalis