Org Behavior Part 2

leaders emphasize personal relationships;

They cared about the needs of their subordinates and accepted individual differences among them (people-focused leaders)
emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job (task-focused leaders)

their main concern was accomplishing their group's tasks, and the group members were a means to that end
value experimentation, seeking out new ideas, and promote change (change-focused leaders)
Charismatic Theories of Leadership
■ They stress symbolic and emotionally appealing leader behaviors
■ They attempt to explain how certain leaders are able to achieve extraordinary levels of follower commitment
Charismatic Leadership
followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors
Five Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
1. They have a vision & effectively communicate it
2. Are willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision
3. Are sensitive to environmental constraints
4. Are sensitive to follower needs, and
5. Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary (unconventional behavior)
Creating a vision
good leaders recognize their strengths and weaknesses and hire those who can help them overcome their weaknesses
Delegate & Let go
Effective Communication
Rally the troops & Inspire
Skilled in the Art of Science and Persuasion
Getting people to do things
a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
Relationship Conflict (Affective Conflict)
○ Involves disagreements on personal and social issues that are not related to work
■ This type of conflict is rooted in anger, personal friction, personality clashes, ego, and tension
Task Conflict (Cognitive Conflict)
○ Involves disagreements about the work that is being done in a group
■ This type of conflict consists of argumentation about the merits of ideas, plans, and projects
Relationship Conflict Results In
○ Unresolved anger, low self-esteem or self-confidence, role ambiguity, problems of efficiency, "unfinished business" [and generally is detrimental to performance and satisfaction]
Task Conflict Results In
● Higher decision-making quality, greater understanding of issues, higher commitment, innovation & creativity
when jobs are highly specialized, employees become experts at certain tasks, conflict between salespeople and engineers
○ sales people are often accused of making delivery promises to customers that engineers cannot keep because the sales force lacks the technical knowledge necessary to develop realistic delivery deadlines
● requires groups or inviduals to depend on one another to accomplish goals
○ when there is a problem it is easy to blame the other party and conflict escalates
○ considerable frustration may result when workings at one station feel their efforts are being blocked by another station and their pay is affected because they are paid piece-rate
Common Resources
● multiple parties share resources
○ this may cause problems, especially when resource becomes scarce
Goal Differences
● when work groups have different goals, these may be incompatible
○ often these conflicts occur because individuals do not have knowledge of another department's objectives
Authority Relationships
● a traditional boss-employee relationship is hierarchical in nature, with a boss who is superior to the employee
○ some people resent authority, creating conflict
○ some bosses are more autocratic than others, this compounds the potential for conflict in the relationship
○ as organizations move toward the team approach and empowerment, there should be less potential for conflict from authority relationships
Status Inconsistencies
● some organizations have a strong status difference between management and non management workers
○ managers may enjoy privileges that are not available to nonmanagement employees, creating resentment and conflict
Jurisdictional Ambiguities
● the presence of unclear lines of responsibility within an organiztion
○ example: call a company and talk to 12 different people trying to get your problem solved