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Terms in this set (44)

The three major axis powers are (Nazi) Germany, Italy, and Japan (and the Soviet Union at first, who later joined the Allies) where the Allies consisted of United States, United Kingdom, and France, as well as other Eastern European countries before their downfall.
The belligerents during World War II fought as partners in one of two major alliances: the Axis and the Allies. The three principal partners in the Axis alliance were Germany, Italy, and Japan. These three countries recognized German hegemony over most of continental Europe; Italian hegemony over the Mediterranean Sea; and Japanese hegemony over East Asia and the Pacific.

Although the Axis partners never developed institutions to coordinate foreign or military policy as the Allies did, the Axis partners had two common interests: 1) territorial expansion and foundation of empires based on military conquest and the overthrow of the post-World War I international order; and 2) the destruction or neutralization of Soviet Communism.

On November 1, 1936, Germany and Italy, reflecting their common interest in destabilizing the European order, announced a Rome-Berlin Axis one week after signing a treaty of friendship. Nearly a month later, on November 25, 1936, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan signed the so-called Anti-Comintern Pact directed at the Soviet Union. Italy joined the Anti-Comintern Pact on November 6, 1937. On May 22, 1939, Germany and Italy signed the so-called Pact of Steel, formalizing the Axis alliance with military provisions. Finally, on September 27, 1940, Germany, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, which became known as the Axis alliance.

Even before the Tripartite Pact, two of the three Axis powers had initiated conflicts that would become theaters of war in World War II. On July 7, 1937, Japan invaded China to initiate the war in the Pacific; while the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, unleashed the European war. Italy entered World War II on the Axis side on June 10, 1940, as the defeat of France became apparent.

After Japan's surprise attack on the United States fleet anchored at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941, and the declaration of war on the United States by Germany and the European Axis powers within a week, the Atlantic and Pacific wars became a truly world war.
As many flashy cars drive toward Dublin, crowds gather and cheer. A race has just finished, and though the French have placed second and third after the German-Belgian team, the local sightseers loudly support them. Jimmy Doyle rides in one of the cars with his wealthy French friend, Charles Ségouin, whom he met while studying at Cambridge. Two other men ride with them as well: Ségouin's Canadian cousin, André Riviére, and a Hungarian pianist, Villona. Driving back into Dublin, the young men rejoice about the victory, and Jimmy enjoys the prestige of the ride. He fondly thinks about his recent investment in Ségouin's motor-company business venture, a financial backing that his father, a successful butcher, approves and supports. Jimmy savors the notoriety of being surrounded by and seen with such glamorous company, and in such a luxurious car.

Ségouin drops Jimmy and Villona off in Dublin so they can return to Jimmy's home, where Villona is staying, to change into formal dress for dinner at Ségouin's hotel. Jimmy's proud parents dote on their smartly dressed and well-connected son. At the dinner, the reunited party joins an Englishman, Routh, and conversation energetically moves from music to cars to politics, under the direction of Ségouin. Jimmy, turning to Irish-English relations, rouses an angry response from Routh, but Ségouin expertly snuffs any potential for argument with a toast.

After the meal, the young men stroll through Dublin and run into another acquaintance, an American named Farley, who invites them to his yacht. The party grows merrier, and they sing a French marching song as they make their way to the harbor. Once on board, the men proceed to dance and drink as Villona plays the piano. Jimmy makes a speech that his companions loudly applaud, and then the men settle down to play cards. Drunk and giddy, Jimmy plays game after game, losing more and more money. He yearns for the playing to stop, but goes along nevertheless. A final game leaves Routh the champion. Even as the biggest loser alongside Farley, Jimmy's spirits never dwindle. He knows he will feel remorse the next day, but assures himself of his happiness just as Villona opens the cabin door and announces that daybreak has come.
Morley Safer went to Munich this week to look at art--"degenerate" art. That's how Adolf Hitler described much of the artwork of the modernist movement, which flourished in Germany in the aftermath of World War I.

"The art speaks for itself," Safer tells 60 Minutes Overtime. "You can see why those small-minded people would consider it degenerate. It's very tough, it's brutal, it gets your attention, and it has a political tone to it-- and the political tone is essentially anti-war."

Hitler and his inner circle hated modern art so much, they seized more than 16,000 works of so-called degenerate art from museums throughout Germany and organized an exhibition in 1937.

The exhibition featured 650 works of what the Nazis deemed "monstrosities of madness." The point was to shame the artists and convince all Germans that modern art was a perversion created by sick minds.

At the show's first exhibition in Munich, it attracted more than two million people, and over the next three years, it would travel to a dozen more cities. Safer says it was one of the most well-attended exhibitions in German history.

"At the center of it was anti-Semitism," Safer says, "because a lot of the collectors of that cutting-edge art were Jews who saw the value of this, if you like, brutal commentary on the era."

Safer suggests another motive behind Hitler's attack on modern art: he was a failed artist. Twice, a young Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna and twice he was rejected.

"His paintings were nothing brilliant, but they were OK. However, he did not make the cut and I think he lived a life of resentment," Safer says. "People have speculated, 'If only he had gotten into the academy, we may have saved several million lives.'"
Friedrich Engels, whose father owned a textile factory in Prussia and was partner in a cotton plant in Britain, became one of the great critics of the human price of industrialization. Engels began reading the work of leftist intellectuals and the philosopher Hegel while a business apprentice and became persuaded that the necessary consequence of the dialectic was socialism. In the 1840s, he moved to Manchester to work for the family enterprises and study advanced industrial society and its class conflict firsthand. This led to his first major publication, The Condition of the Working Class in England, and eventually, to a life-long political partnership with Karl Marx. Together, they wrote the Communist Manifesto. Engels found the achievements of industry impressive but their social cost staggering: "One realizes," he observed, "that these Londoners have been forces to sacrifice the best qualities of their human nature, to bring to pass all the marvels of civilization which crowd their city." Eventually a partner in his father's business, Engels used his private income to help support Marx's research in philosophy and economics and his political work.
The Condition of the Working Class in England is a 1845 book by the German philosopher Friedrich Engels, a study of the industrial working class in Victorian England. Engels' first book, it was originally written in German as Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England. It was written during his 1842-44 stay in Manchester, the city at the heart of the Industrial Revolution, compiled from Engels' own observations and detailed contemporary reports.
Stuart Hall (1932-) was born in Jamaica and has lived in England since 1951, when he attended Oxford University as a Rhodes scholar. Hall has simultaneously been an intellectual and political activist. He was one of the founders of the British new left, active in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, a supporter of student protest in the late 1960s, and a commentator on black politics in the British media. His portrait is in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery in London. Hall is among the pioneers of 'cultural studies'--an interdisciplinary field in the humanities whose resonance has been international. His recent work has been transformed by globalization. in "minimal Selves," Hall draws on his own experience to draw a picture of identity as being historically contingent, unstable, and continually in flux.
To explain the process of identity formation, Hall uses Derrida's theory 'differance' as support, and Hall sees the temporary positioning of identity as "strategic" and arbitrary. He then uses the three presences--African, European, and American--in the Caribbean to illustrate the idea of "traces" in our identity. A Caribbean experiences three kinds of cultural identities. Firstly, the cultural identity of the Africans which is considered as site of the repressed, secondly, the cultural identity of the Europeans which is the site of the colonialist, and thirdly, the cultural identity of the Americans which is a new world- a site of cultural confrontation. Thus the presence of these three cultural identities offers the possibility of creolization and points of new becoming. Finally, he defines the Caribbean identity as diaspora identity.
A style of painting, made popular by Warhol, which exalted postwar consumerism and celebrated popular culture.
The phrase pop art was first used in England in the late 1950s to signify painting that exalted postwar consumerism and celebrated popular culture. Pop art was a postmodern reaction against nonrepresentational abstract art, including the painting it most recent practitioners, the abstraction expressionists, whom the pop artist thought were pretentious and overly serious with their concept of the collective unconscious. The Pop artist , who converted common objects into works of art, were influenced by Dad and by Marcel Duchamp's ready-mades. Pop artist scoffed at the idea of the unique art object.

Of the early painters in pop art movement in the United States, Jasper Johns was the foremost. Born and raised in South Carolina, Johns Studied briefly at the University of South Carolina before moving to New York City in the early 1950s largely self taught as an artist he began to paint common object such as target maps and especially flags, In 1954. Four years later, he executed one of his most famous paintings, three flags, which is literally three canvas superimposed on one another creating a reverse perspective with the smallest flag moving into the space of the viewer. It is simultaneously a painting and a relief sculpture. Johns used thick encaustic paint, pigments mixed in medium of wax, to create his flag painting.

The work of Robert Rauschenberg has also, like Johns', often been described as neo dada. In 1948,Rauschenberg Studied at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, where he met the musician John Cage, With whom he later collaborated. In 1949, he went to New York and studied at the Art Students League. After traveling in Europe, in 1955 he rented a studio in New York in the same building as Johns. At this time, Rauschenberg began to produce works that he called combines-some like Picasso's collages and Duchamps'found items for ready-made. Also called assemblages, they were neither paintings are sculptures, but a combination of two. Rauschenberg's Canyon, a mixture of collage work make and three-dimensional found items-combines paint, photograph, Paper, metal, fabric and wood on a campus, As well as a stuffed eagle perched on a box and suspended pillow. The disorder reflects Rauschenberg's own sense of the chaos of modern life, as he himself declared: "I only consider myself successful when I do something that resembles the last order I sense."

The man from the media called "the prince of pop," Andy Warhol, was also influenced by Duchamp. After studying painting and commercial design at the Carnegie Institute technology in his native Pittsburg, Warhol move to New York in 1948, where he soon became a successful commercial artist. In 1962, Warhol turned to depicting popular culture in "The Factory," his art studio on East 87th Street, where he mass-produced prints and posters. His favorite printmaking technique was silk-screen printing photo images on canvas. Photo silk screen printing is accomplished by creating a stencil on a piece of stretched silk gauze and then forcing paint or ink through the stencil onto the printing surface. One screen is used for each color. Warhol used ordinary objects, often in multiple forms, such as campbell soup cans and coca-cola bottles, as well as images of celebrities, such as Marilyn Monroe. Warhol's Marilyn Diptych consists of two panels, each with twenty-five images of the mask like face.
The finest singer of the blues in the United States was undoubtedly Bessie Smith (1894-1937), who was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and sang on street corners before becoming a dancer in a black minstrel show. The show also included "Ma" Rainey, whose protege Smith became, and by 1920, Smith surpassed Rainey to become the headliner in the touring show. Even though musical tastes were different everywhere the show performed, Smith was always a hit, which earned her the title "Empress of the Blues." Despite her successes in northern cities such as Chicago and New York, Smith's real "home" was always in the South. Even though other blues singers made records, only Smith's sold in record numbers, rescuing some dying record companies that were on the verge of bankruptcy. Her rendition of "Lost Your Head Blues" concerning a woman who is about to leave her man because "he done her wrong" is considered to be one of the finest examples of blues. It opens with the cornet, played by Joe Smith, and the piano, played by Fletcher Henderson. Bessie Smith then sings, in quivering tones and slides, the blues melody in passages such as "I was with you baby," "throw'd your good gal down," and "days are lonesome, nights are long," phrases that are recapitulated by the instrumental ensemble.
Smith's records cover an array of music --from boisterous and bawdy vaudeville tunes to heart wrenching blue tunes. She was good with the former because it often reflected her own devil-may-care lifestyle, whereas the latter brought a poignancy of heartfelt emotion. but above all, it was Smith's lush contra alto voice and her awe-inspiring delivery that won audiences over.

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