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process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
learning that occurs when a previously neutral stimulus (NS) is paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR)
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) without previous conditioning
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that occurs without previous conditioning
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), now causes a conditioned response (CR)
Conditioned Response (CR)
learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that occurs because of previous repeated pairing with an conditioned stimulus
Conditioned emotional response (CER)
classically conditioned emotional response to a previously neutral stimulus (NS)
One time pairing for phobias
Basic classical conditioning when a neutral stimulus (NS) is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that the NS comes to elicit a conditioned response (CR)
only the CS elicits the CR
the occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimulus
Higher order conditioning
Neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS)
A step above classical conditioning
Learning through the consequences of voluntary behavior
Involves learning voluntary responses to stimuli through consequences of previous experiences-strengthened if followed by reinforcement and diminished if followed by punishment
(examples are...Prejudice, biofeedback, superstitious behavior)
strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
A response that follows a behavior that results in an increase in a response
weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
A response that follows a behavior that results in a decrease in a response
Law of effect
Thorndike's rule that the probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when it is followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence
Stimuli that satisfies a biological need.
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because they satisfy an unlearned, biological need
Stimuli that have acquired learned value.
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their learned value
Adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it ore likely to recur
taking a away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
using a naturally occurring high-frequency response to reinforce and increase low-frequency responses
Fixed ratio (FR) schedule
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed
Variable ratio (VR) schedule
reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio (number or amount) varies
Fixed interval (FI) schedule
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (time) is fixed
Variable interval (VI) schedule
reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies
Teaching a desired response by reinforcing a series of successive steps leading to the final response.
reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the desired response
adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
cue signaling when a specific response will lead to the expected reinforcement
emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior
Learner is seen as an information processing system, literally a biocomputer
classically conditioned negative reaction to a particular taste that has been associated with nausea or other illness
built-in (innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses
involuntary bodily process (such as blood pressure or heart rate) is recorded, and the information is fed back to an organism to increase voluntary control over that bodily function
does not exist. You need 99.999% of the species to demonstrate an action before it's classified as instinctive
defined as a sudden flash of understanding that occurs when you are trying to solve a problem
Tolmans Latent learning
Learning that occurs in the absence of a reward and remains hidden until there is some incentive to demonstrate it.
(shows itself later)
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