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57 terms

Chapter 6 Psych

Learning Notes added
STUDY
PLAY
Learning
relatively permanent change in behavior or mental process due to experience
Conditioning
process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses
Classical conditioning
learning that occurs when a previously neutral stimulus (NS) is paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR)
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response (UCR) without previous conditioning
Unconditioned response (UCR)
Unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that occurs without previous conditioning
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), now causes a conditioned response (CR)
Conditioned Response (CR)
learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus (CS) that occurs because of previous repeated pairing with an conditioned stimulus
Conditioned emotional response (CER)
classically conditioned emotional response to a previously neutral stimulus (NS)
One time pairing for phobias
Acquisition
Basic classical conditioning when a neutral stimulus (NS) is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) so that the NS comes to elicit a conditioned response (CR)
Stimulus Generalization
stimuli similar to the original CS elicit a CR
Respond to similar stimuli
Stimulus Discrimination
only the CS elicits the CR
the occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimulus
Extinction
repeatedly presenting the CS without the UCS, which gradually weakens the CR
Spontaneous recovery
sudden reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response (CR)
Higher order conditioning
Neutral stimulus (NS) becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) through repeated pairings with a previously conditioned stimulus (CS)
A step above classical conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Learning through the consequences of voluntary behavior
Involves learning voluntary responses to stimuli through consequences of previous experiences-strengthened if followed by reinforcement and diminished if followed by punishment
(examples are...Prejudice, biofeedback, superstitious behavior)
Reinforcement
strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
A response that follows a behavior that results in an increase in a response
Punishment
weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
A response that follows a behavior that results in a decrease in a response
Law of effect
Thorndike's rule that the probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when it is followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence
Primary reinforcers
Stimuli that satisfies a biological need.
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because they satisfy an unlearned, biological need
Secondary reinforcers
Stimuli that have acquired learned value.
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their learned value
Positive reinforcement
Adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it ore likely to recur
Negative reinforcement
taking a away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur
Premack principle
using a naturally occurring high-frequency response to reinforce and increase low-frequency responses
Continuous reinforcement
every correct response is reinforced
Partial (intermittent) reinforcement
some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced
Fixed ratio (FR) schedule
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed
(response)
Variable ratio (VR) schedule
reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the ratio (number or amount) varies
(response)
Fixed interval (FI) schedule
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed; the interval (time) is fixed
(time)
Variable interval (VI) schedule
reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the interval (time) varies
(time)
Shaping
Teaching a desired response by reinforcing a series of successive steps leading to the final response.
reinforcement delivered for successive approximations of the desired response
Positive punishment
adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Negative punishment
taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur
Discriminative stimulus
cue signaling when a specific response will lead to the expected reinforcement
Cognitive-social theory
emphasizes the roles of thinking and social learning in behavior
Learner is seen as an information processing system, literally a biocomputer
Cognitive map
mental image of a three dimensional space that an organism has navigated
Latent learning
hidden learning that exists without behavioral signs
Taste aversion
classically conditioned negative reaction to a particular taste that has been associated with nausea or other illness
Biological preparedness
built-in (innate) readiness to form associations between certain stimuli and responses
Instinctive drift
conditioned responses shift (or drift) back toward innate response patterns
Biofeedback
involuntary bodily process (such as blood pressure or heart rate) is recorded, and the information is fed back to an organism to increase voluntary control over that bodily function
Reflexes are
innate
Human instinct
does not exist. You need 99.999% of the species to demonstrate an action before it's classified as instinctive
Pavlovs experiment
NS: Bell/Tone
UCS: Food
UCR: Salivation
CS: Bell/Tone
CR:Salivation
Elicit
To draw or bring forth, associated with classical conditioning (involuntary)
Emit
To send forth; associated with operant conditioning
Examples of Classical conditioning
Phobias
Prejudice
Medical treatments
Advertising
Four things that may occur with a response
Reinforcement or reward
Punishment
Need to avoid
Nothing
NS
Neutral stimulus
UCS
Unconditioned stimulus
UCR
Unconditioned response
CS
Conditioned stimulus
CR
Conditioned response
Insight
defined as a sudden flash of understanding that occurs when you are trying to solve a problem
Tolmans Latent learning
Learning that occurs in the absence of a reward and remains hidden until there is some incentive to demonstrate it.
(shows itself later)
Observational learning
behaviors learned from watching others
Neurosciences
changes in the Biochemistry of the brain
Your brain actively changes-the chemicals alter after you learn something