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Biochem

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compounds
Formed when atoms bond, bonds are created by sharing or transfer of electron
covalent bonds
Sharing of electrons between atoms. May be a single bond, double or triple
ionic bonds
Occur when an atom donates one or more of their electrons to another atom
ion
(+) when losing electrons and (-) when gaining electrons; molecule having a charge
polar covalent bond
Electrons are shared, but not equally. Might have slight (+) and slight(-) charged
organic compounds
Contain carbon, since carbon is a unique and important element it can form strong and stable covalent bonds. (Bonds 4 times)
inorganic compounds
compounds that do not contain carbon
molecular formulas
Show the number of atoms that make up a Cpd. ex.H2O,CO2...
structural formulas
Use same symbols as molecular but show how they are bonded
polymers
Large molecules consisting of identical or similar building-block molecules, strung together
monomer
The individual building block of a polymer
water
A polar molecule in which makes up 50-90% of all organisms
solvent
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
acid
Contains H+ ions
bases
Contain OH- ions
hydrophobic
Water hating
hydrophillic
Water loving
atoms
Composed of subatomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons
elements
Pure substances that are made of a single kind of atom
periodic table
Arranges elements into periods(horizontal rows) and groups (vertical columns) according to their atomic number
mass number
Total number of protons and neutrons
atomic mass
Mass of an average atom of an element, in atomic mass units
molecules
Are combinations of 2 or more atoms
valence electrons
Those electrons that occupy the outer shell (valence shell)
cation
When a neutral atom gives up an electron and becomes positively charged
anion
Neutral atom gains electrons and becomes negatively charged
ionic compound
Substances composed of cations and anions
hydrogen bonds
Attraction between polar molecules containing Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen
aqueous solution
means solute is dissolved in water
concentration
Ratio of the quantity of solute to the quantity of solution
neutralization
An acid reacts with a base to produce a water and salt
pH scale
Scale from 0-14, 0 meaning a strong acid and 14 being a strong base
buffer
Solution containing chemicals that can neutralize small amounts of acids and bases
biochemistry
Study of the chemistry of living things including the chemical substances and processes involved
organic chemistry
Study of organic molecules
functional groups
Groups of atoms that gives compounds specific chemical properties
macromolecules
Very large organic molecules
hydrocarbons
Organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen, can be formed into chains or rings
carbohydrates
Contain C,H,O, almost always in the 1:2:1 ratio, they are a source of energy for most orcanisms
monosaccharides
Simple sugars
disaccharides
Double sugars, made of 2 simple sugars by a dehydration synthesis
polysaccharides
Complex carbohydrate, many simple sugars that are linked
cellulose
Structural molecule in cell walls, not digestible by humans
glycogen
Energy storage in the liver of animals
starch
Energy storage in plants
lipids
nonpolar molecules containing C, H, O in no set ratio; eg. phospholipids, steroids, waxes
triglyceride
lipid molecule containing one glycerol and three fatty acids
saturated fat
A fat containing only single bonds between carbon atoms
unsaturated fat
A fat containing some double bonds between carbon atoms
waxes
lipid molecules commonly used in plants and some animals as waterproof coatings
phospholipids
lipid molecules similar to triglycerides, however there is an additional functional group (phosphate)
steroids
Lipid molecule composed of four carbon rings
proteins
An unbranched polymer of amino acid, contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; source of energy; needed by tissue for repair and growth; made up of 20 amino acids.
amino acid
A protein subunit
peptide bond
a bond between amino acids in a protein molecule
polypeptide
a short chain of amino acids
protein synthesis
the production of proteins
enzymes
a protein that speeds up chemical reactions
catalyst
a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions
denaturation
a change in the 3D shape of a protein caused by high temperatures or harsh chemical environments
nucleic acids
store hereditary information in DNA and decode hereditary information in RNA