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Formed when atoms bond, bonds are created by sharing or transfer of electron

covalent bonds

Sharing of electrons between atoms. May be a single bond, double or triple

ionic bonds

Occur when an atom donates one or more of their electrons to another atom


(+) when losing electrons and (-) when gaining electrons; molecule having a charge

polar covalent bond

Electrons are shared, but not equally. Might have slight (+) and slight(-) charged

organic compounds

Contain carbon, since carbon is a unique and important element it can form strong and stable covalent bonds. (Bonds 4 times)

inorganic compounds

compounds that do not contain carbon

molecular formulas

Show the number of atoms that make up a Cpd. ex.H2O,CO2...

structural formulas

Use same symbols as molecular but show how they are bonded


Large molecules consisting of identical or similar building-block molecules, strung together


The individual building block of a polymer


A polar molecule in which makes up 50-90% of all organisms


a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances


Contains H+ ions


Contain OH- ions


Water hating


Water loving


Composed of subatomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons


Pure substances that are made of a single kind of atom

periodic table

Arranges elements into periods(horizontal rows) and groups (vertical columns) according to their atomic number

mass number

Total number of protons and neutrons

atomic mass

Mass of an average atom of an element, in atomic mass units


Are combinations of 2 or more atoms

valence electrons

Those electrons that occupy the outer shell (valence shell)


When a neutral atom gives up an electron and becomes positively charged


Neutral atom gains electrons and becomes negatively charged

ionic compound

Substances composed of cations and anions

hydrogen bonds

Attraction between polar molecules containing Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen

aqueous solution

means solute is dissolved in water


Ratio of the quantity of solute to the quantity of solution


An acid reacts with a base to produce a water and salt

pH scale

Scale from 0-14, 0 meaning a strong acid and 14 being a strong base


Solution containing chemicals that can neutralize small amounts of acids and bases


Study of the chemistry of living things including the chemical substances and processes involved

organic chemistry

Study of organic molecules

functional groups

Groups of atoms that gives compounds specific chemical properties


Very large organic molecules


Organic molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen, can be formed into chains or rings


Contain C,H,O, almost always in the 1:2:1 ratio, they are a source of energy for most orcanisms


Simple sugars


Double sugars, made of 2 simple sugars by a dehydration synthesis


Complex carbohydrate, many simple sugars that are linked


Structural molecule in cell walls, not digestible by humans


Energy storage in the liver of animals


Energy storage in plants


nonpolar molecules containing C, H, O in no set ratio; eg. phospholipids, steroids, waxes


lipid molecule containing one glycerol and three fatty acids

saturated fat

A fat containing only single bonds between carbon atoms

unsaturated fat

A fat containing some double bonds between carbon atoms


lipid molecules commonly used in plants and some animals as waterproof coatings


lipid molecules similar to triglycerides, however there is an additional functional group (phosphate)


Lipid molecule composed of four carbon rings


An unbranched polymer of amino acid, contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; source of energy; needed by tissue for repair and growth; made up of 20 amino acids.

amino acid

A protein subunit

peptide bond

a bond between amino acids in a protein molecule


a short chain of amino acids

protein synthesis

the production of proteins


a protein that speeds up chemical reactions


a chemical that speeds up chemical reactions


a change in the 3D shape of a protein caused by high temperatures or harsh chemical environments

nucleic acids

store hereditary information in DNA and decode hereditary information in RNA

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