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Terms in this set (71)
Why was 1607 a major turning point in US history?
It is the beginning of the framework of a new nation.
What ways did native people transform North America environment before European colonization?
A) men hunted
B) made tools
C) women gathered crops
D) grew crops
What's one similarity between the development of Central/South America and North America?
Both had a stable food supply
What's one difference between the development of Central/South America and North America?
North America was smaller and less sophisticated.
Why was North America less sophisticated and smaller?
Corn spread to North America slower than the rest.
What's the difference between the Viking voyages in the 12th century and Columbus' voyages in the 15th century?
Vikings didn't have a lasting impact while Columbus did by bringing people into contact.
How did new technology enable Christopher Columbus to dominate the "New World?"
Technology improvements helped Columbus build better ships and better navigation systems ( compass and map).
What was the impact of the Catholic victory in Spain and the European Reformation on North America?
Signaled new leadership, hope, and power for Europeans who followed the Roman Catholic Faith.
What are the three main effects of Europe's expanding trade in the 15th century?
1) new routes to trade
2) slave trading
3) development of nation states
How did European expansion impact European society?
Brought trade with people around the world introducing new foods and plants.
How did European expansion impact Native American society?
Columbian Exchange brought diseases such as syphillis and smallpox.
What were the 3 chief features of the Spanish empire in America?
1) took the lands natural resources and riches 2) dominated the new world 3) transformed them into Christians
Why were the Spanish settling in North America?
Competition of exploring and dominating the new world.
Where did the Spanish settle? (4)
Florida, New Mexico, Texas, California
Identify three major consequences of European contact with American Indians.
How did France treat the Native Americans different than Spain?
France built military and economic alliances with the Native Americans.
How did Spain treat the Native Americans different than France?
Spain settled in large native empires and used natives as a work force.
How effective were Native Americans in overcoming the negative aspects of European policies?
They tried to fight back, but eventually lost and relocated or died from disease and/or violence.
Name 5 famous Spanish explorers.
1) Christopher Columbus
2) Ferdinand Magellan
3) Hernan Cortez
$) Vasco Nunez de Balboa
5) Francisco Pizano
What did Christopher Columbus do?
Brought contact between people across the globe.
What did Ferdinand Magellan do?
Circumnavigated the world
What did Hernan Cortez do?
Took over the Aztec empire
What did Vasco Nunez de Balboa do?
Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean
What did Francisco Pizano do?
Took over the Incas in Peru.
What did the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayans have in common? (4)
1) extensive trade
2)highly organized societies
3) calendars based on scientific observation
4) cultivated crops = stable food supply
What crops did the Mayans and the Aztecs cultivate?
What crops did the Incas cultivate?
Describe early southwest settlements
Farmed with irrigation systems.
Lived in caves, under cliffs, and multi storied buildings
Describe early Northwest settlements
Lived in permanent longhouses or plank houses.
How did the early Northwest settlements get their food?
Fished, hunted, and gathered.
How did the early Northwest settlements save their stories, myths, and legends?
Carved large totem poles.
What isolated tribes from one another in the early Northwest settlements?
High mountain ranges.
Who lived on the Great Plains?
Nomadic hunters or sedentary people who farmed and traded.
How were the natives ruled by?
Who were the Chinooks?
soldiers with advanced fighting techniques.
Which animal was important for fighting?
What was the women's role in the Northeast? (Iroquios)
Head of household and made important decisions
What was the encomienda system?
When Spanish took over Natives, the natives were used as slave labor.
What stopped the encomienda system and soon began African slave trade?
What were the Mestizos?
Natives and the Spanish intermarried.
What happened to the soil in Northeast settlements? and What happened after?
Soil exhausted quickly so people had to move frequently.
What did Europeans improve from other counties and what were the countries? (2)
Arab - sailing compass
What did the Europeans improve?
Shipbuilding and mapmaking
What invention in the 1450's helped spread knowledge across Europe?
the printing press
What was traded during the Columbian Exchange? (4)
plants, animals, germs, and people
Name 3 famous English Explorers.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sir Francis Drake
What did John Cabot do?
explored the coast of Newfoundland in 1497
What did Sir Walter Raleigh do?
attempted to establish a settlement at Roanoke, Island of North Carolina's coast, but failed
What did Sir Francis Drake do?
attacked Spanish settlements and ships and stole their gold and silver
Name 5 famous french explorers
Giovanni de Verranzo
Samuel de Champlain
Father Jacques Marquette and Luis Jollient
Robert de la Salle
Who was Giovanni de Verranzo?
Explored part of North America's eastern coast
Who was Jacques Cartier?
explored the St. Lawrence river
Who was Samuel de Champlain?
established the first permanent settlement in the Americas ( village on the St. Lawrence river)
Who was Jacques Marquette and Luis Jollient?
explored the upper Mississippi River
Who was Robet de la Salle?
explored the Mississippi basin and named in Louisiana
Name 1 famous dutch explorer and what did he do?
Henry Hudson sailed up a broad river and named it the Hudson River.
What was Henry Hudson's original task?
To find a westward passage to Asia through northern America
What was the English motives for exploration and settlement?
wanted to find riches such as silver and gold
What was Spain's motives for exploration and settlement?
Search for gold and silver
What was the French's motives for exploration and settlement?
wanted to find a northwest passage leading through the Americas to Asia
What was the Dutch's motives for exploration and settlement?
Seek a westward passage to Asia through northern America.
What was the English's attitude toward Native Americans?
Traded and shared ideas, but soon started conflict because English didn't care about the natives cultures and viewed them as savages.
What was the Dutch's attitude toward the Native Americans?
Saw them as trading partners and made treaties with them
What is the asiento system?
Africans used as slaves because the Native population decreased
Why did the Native population decrease?
because of the Europeans diseases and brutality
What were the English claims?
Attempted to establish a settlement at Roanoke off the coast of North Carolina, but failed
- seized gold from the Spanish
- explored coast of the Newfoundland
What were the Dutch's claims?
Henry Hudson's expedition = surrounding area of the Hudson river
What were the Spanish claims?
Made claims on lands that they didn't step foot on or didn't even know what was there.
What were the French's claim?
North American land
What was Dutch West India Company?
the right to control the region for economic gain
Where did the dutch settle?
around the hudson river, New york