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What are the causes of earthquakes?

The release of energy from plate tectonic movement.

What are the types of seismic waves?

P and S

S waves are ______.


P waves are ______.


Which wave cannot travel through water?

S can't travel through water because it is a long wave.

Which wave is the fastest?

P is the fastest.

The _______ is where energy from plate tectonics is released below the surface.


Three points recorded to calculate where something occurs is the _________.


An area above surface where energy is released is the ________.


What does the Richter Scale measure?

Time and amplitude.

How is the Richter Scale organized?


Where do earthquakes occur?

Any place that has plate tectonic movement.

An earthquake under the ocean is a ______.


What causes a tsunami?

Energy waves

______ suggested that continents fit together and had fossils to prove it.

Dr. Suess

_______ put together all the information for continental drift.

Alfred Wegener

_______ looked at continental shelf.

Sir Edward Bullard

______ discovered Sea floor spreading. He noticed that it was like a conveyor belt with new material on top and old material on the bottom, or destroyed.

Harry Hess

What are the three types of plate boundaries?

Convergent, Divergent, and Transform.

_____ boundaries are found in mid ocean ridges.


______boundaries are found in San Andres.


______boundaries are found in Island arcs. They are made after island arcs collide and create mountains.


What are the driving mechanisms of plate tectonics?

Convection and gravity.

The matching up of strata from different outcrops in different regions is called?


Who is known as the Father of modern Stratigraphy?

William Strata Smith

Who created the first geological map of England?

William Strata Smith

_____ is an unconformity in which younger sedimentary strata lies on top and older metamorphic rock is on the bottom.


______is an unconformity in the older rocks dip at a different angle than the younger rocks. The folded or tilted rock has lateral continuity.

Angular Unconformity

________is an unconformity in which the beds above and below are parallel.


________is an unconformity principle that states that all layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions.

Lateral Continuity

The time required for one half of the atoms of a radioactive substance to decay is best known as the ________.

Half Life

What is the half life for C-14?

5730 years

What is the half life for K-Ar?

1.3 billion Years

_____is formed by a reaction of cosmic ray particles with Nitrogen-14 in the upper atmosphere.


_______means visible life.


______means old life.


_______means middle life.


_______means recent life.


What is the key concept of relative dating?

Law of superposition

The _________ states that in any undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks or surface-deposited igneous materials, each layer is older than the one above it and younger than the one below it.

Law of superposition

Explain the Relationship of the Principle of Inclusions.

The Rock that contains the inclusions is the younger of the two.

Explain the Law of Cross Cutting

If any rock cross cuts another rock, then its younger than the rock it cross cut.

The ________ states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity.

Law of Original Horizontality

The environmental relationship between lateral facies and vertically-stacked strata is known as _________.

Walther's Law

The observation that a group of fossil plants and animals follow or succeed each other in time in a predictable manner is the ________.

principle of faunal succession

The principle of _______uses fossils and evidence of past life to help determine the relative age of the rock that they are found in.

Principle of Faunal Succession

The principle of_______states that fossils only appear during the time period that the creature was alive, so you can date layers based on their fossils

Principle of Floral Succession

Who is the principle of Faunal Succession attributed to?

William Smith

The concept that Earth's crust is floating in gravitational balance upon the material of the mantle is ______.


A subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere is the _______. The rock within this zone is easily deformed.


The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle is the _______.


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