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51 terms

Geology Final Exam!!!

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What are the causes of earthquakes?
The release of energy from plate tectonic movement.
What are the types of seismic waves?
P and S
S waves are ______.
long
P waves are ______.
short
Which wave cannot travel through water?
S can't travel through water because it is a long wave.
Which wave is the fastest?
P is the fastest.
The _______ is where energy from plate tectonics is released below the surface.
focus
Three points recorded to calculate where something occurs is the _________.
triangulation
An area above surface where energy is released is the ________.
epicenter
What does the Richter Scale measure?
Time and amplitude.
How is the Richter Scale organized?
Exponentially.
Where do earthquakes occur?
Any place that has plate tectonic movement.
An earthquake under the ocean is a ______.
Tsunami
What causes a tsunami?
Energy waves
______ suggested that continents fit together and had fossils to prove it.
Dr. Suess
_______ put together all the information for continental drift.
Alfred Wegener
_______ looked at continental shelf.
Sir Edward Bullard
______ discovered Sea floor spreading. He noticed that it was like a conveyor belt with new material on top and old material on the bottom, or destroyed.
Harry Hess
What are the three types of plate boundaries?
Convergent, Divergent, and Transform.
_____ boundaries are found in mid ocean ridges.
Divergent
______boundaries are found in San Andres.
Transform
______boundaries are found in Island arcs. They are made after island arcs collide and create mountains.
Convergent
What are the driving mechanisms of plate tectonics?
Convection and gravity.
The matching up of strata from different outcrops in different regions is called?
Correlation
Who is known as the Father of modern Stratigraphy?
William Strata Smith
Who created the first geological map of England?
William Strata Smith
_____ is an unconformity in which younger sedimentary strata lies on top and older metamorphic rock is on the bottom.
Nonconformity
______is an unconformity in the older rocks dip at a different angle than the younger rocks. The folded or tilted rock has lateral continuity.
Angular Unconformity
________is an unconformity in which the beds above and below are parallel.
Disconformity
________is an unconformity principle that states that all layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions.
Lateral Continuity
The time required for one half of the atoms of a radioactive substance to decay is best known as the ________.
Half Life
What is the half life for C-14?
5730 years
What is the half life for K-Ar?
1.3 billion Years
_____is formed by a reaction of cosmic ray particles with Nitrogen-14 in the upper atmosphere.
C-14
_______means visible life.
Phanerozoic
______means old life.
Paleozoic
_______means middle life.
Mesozoic
_______means recent life.
Cenozoic.
What is the key concept of relative dating?
Law of superposition
The _________ states that in any undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks or surface-deposited igneous materials, each layer is older than the one above it and younger than the one below it.
Law of superposition
Explain the Relationship of the Principle of Inclusions.
The Rock that contains the inclusions is the younger of the two.
Explain the Law of Cross Cutting
If any rock cross cuts another rock, then its younger than the rock it cross cut.
The ________ states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity.
Law of Original Horizontality
The environmental relationship between lateral facies and vertically-stacked strata is known as _________.
Walther's Law
The observation that a group of fossil plants and animals follow or succeed each other in time in a predictable manner is the ________.
principle of faunal succession
The principle of _______uses fossils and evidence of past life to help determine the relative age of the rock that they are found in.
Principle of Faunal Succession
The principle of_______states that fossils only appear during the time period that the creature was alive, so you can date layers based on their fossils
Principle of Floral Succession
Who is the principle of Faunal Succession attributed to?
William Smith
The concept that Earth's crust is floating in gravitational balance upon the material of the mantle is ______.
Isostacy
A subdivision of the mantle situated below the lithosphere is the _______. The rock within this zone is easily deformed.
Asthenosphere
The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle is the _______.
Lithosphere