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111 terms

Lymphatic, Respiratory, and Digestive System

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Lymphatic tissue
reticular connective tissue containing lymphocytes
Lymph
interstitial fluid in lymphatic vessels. Fuc: returns excess filtration from capillaries-to circulation, transports dietary lipids, filters bacteria
Lymphatic flow
from tissue to veins. Pumped by muscle & respiratory pumps like venous return
Primary lymphatic organs
Red bone marrow & thymus, stem cells divide
Secondary lymphatic organs
lymph nodes, spleen & lymphatic nodules, immune responses occur.
Thymus
Immune responses, atrophys w/ age, posterior to sternum, medial to lungs and superior to heart.
Lymph nodes
scattered throughout the body (600), concentrated near mammary glands, axilla & groin. Filter lymph, trap foreign substances. Macrophages & lymphocutes destroy most foreign substances
Spleen
left hypochondriac. Most damaged organ in abdominal trauma. Between stomach and diaphram. Destroys worn or defective blood cells & platelets. Stores platelets, attacks foreign substances in blood. If this is removed the red bone marrow and liver will take over.
Pulmonology
study of the lungs
Lungs
main function-gas exchange, take in O2 and eliminate CO2
Pulmonary ventilation
breathing, moving air into and out of the lungs
Inspiration/Inhalation
air flows into the lungs
Expiration/Exhalation
air flows out of the lungs
External respiration
gas exchange between alveoli and blood
Internal respiration
gas exchange between blood and cells
Upper respiratory tract
nose, pharynx
Lower Respiratory System
trachea, larynx, bronchi and lungs
Conducting zone
tubing that brings air to where it needs to go
Respiratory zone
gas exchange. Sacs and alveoli
Anatomical dead space
areas that do not do gas exchange
Nose
traps dust, detect olfactory stimuli, modify vocal sounds
Pharynx
funnel shaped tube from internal nares to larynx
Nasopharynx
upper
Oropharynx
middle, between uvula and top of epiglottis
Laryngeal or laryngopharynx
connects with both esophagus & larynx
Larynx
voice box. short tube of cartilage
Thyroid cartilage-anterior
"adams apple"
Epiglottis
upper leaf shaped piece. during swallowing epiglottis covers opening to trachea
Cricoid cartilage
forms inferior wall
False vocal cords
upper
True vocal cords
lower
Trachea
lined w/ pseudostratified ciliated mucous membrane, dust protection, C-shaped cartilage rings keep lumen open
Primary bronchi
enter the lungs along w/ blood vessels, lymphatic vessels & nerves
Secondary bronchi
one for each lobe of the lung
Lungs
two organs R & L, surrounded by pleural membrane
Parietal pleura
attached to diaphram & thoracic wall
Visceral pleura
attached to lungs
Alveoli
150 million in each lung. Cup-shaped out pouch of sac
Alveolar macrophages
"cleaners" eat & stay in one area
Inspiratory reserve volume
inspiration beyond resting
Expiratory reserve volume
still a little air in lungs that leaves the lungs
Lung capacities
# looked @ to measure fitness of lungs
Eupnea
normal breathing. Highly variable in pattern
Internal Respiration
Occurs throughout body, O2 diffuses from blood to cells.
HCO3-
bicarbonate ion. one of the bodys most important ions.
Valsalva manuver
bearing down
Proprioception
stimulates the start of activity. calls for more O2
Apnea
sudden pain
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. main cause is smoking
Chronic bronchitis
inflimation of the bronchi, excessive mucus is produced
Emphysema
alveoli get destroyed, less oxygen can be exchanged
Pneumonia
infection of the alveoli, can be viral/bacterial
TB
tuberculosis, highly contagious bacterial disease
Lung Cancer
leading cause of cancer death in US. 85% is related to smoking
Cystic fibrosis
inherited disease that caused excess mucus production in lungs & eventually causes lung disease
SIDS
sudden infand death syndrome. death of infant <12 months of age due to hypoxia while sleeping on stomach. comes from underdeveloped medulla oblongata
Gastroenterology
study of the stomach and intestines
GI tract
gastrointestinal or alimentary canal. tube that goes from mouth to anus
Accessory organs
teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gullbladder, and pancreas
Serosa or visceral peritoneum
goes all around digestive system
Mouth
formed by cheeks, hard & soft palate & tounge
Uvula
"hangy down" part, durring swallowing uvula prevents entry into nasal cavity
Parotid salivary gland
inferior & anterior to ears (by cheeks)
Submandibular salivary gland
in floor of mouth, medial & inferior to mandible
Sublingual salivary gland
beneath tongue and superior to submandibular salivary gland
Saliva contains
99.5% water, salivary amylase, mucus and other solutes.
Crown
above gums
Root
1 or more parts embedded in socket
Neck
between crown and root near gum line
Enamel
covers crown
Dentin
majority of interior of tooth
Pulp cavity
nerve, blood vessel & lymphatics
Mechanical breakdown
chewing, mastication
Salivary amylase
chemically breaks down polysaccharides (starch)
Bolus
a small round soft mass of chewed food
Upper esophageal sphincter
skeletal muscle, controls entry to esophagus
Cardiac or lower esophageal sphincter
smooth muscle, regulates entry to stomach
Deglutition
swallowing, voluntary, bolus forced into oropharynx
Epiglottis
seals off larynx while eating
Stomach
J-shaped enlargement of tract, serves as a mixing chamber and holding reservoir, very elastic and muscular
HCl
hydrochloric acid, kills bacteria
Rugae
folds in stomach
Chyme
when bolus leaves stomach it is liquid
Emesis
vomiting
Pancreas
behind stomach, pH 7.1-8.2, neutralize stomach acid and dilutes chyme
Pancreatic amylase
breaks down starch
Pancreatic lipase
breaks down fats
Nucleotidases
RNAase and DNAase
Gull bladder
pear shaped organ on front and under liver. stores bile
Bile
breaks down fat, important for emulsifying fats, basic
Liver
maintains blood glucose, lipid metabolism, excretion of bilirubin, processes drugs and other chemicals, store fat soluble vitmins, make vitiman D
Dudodenum
first part of the small intestine
Jejunum
middle part of the small intestine
Ileum
last part of the small intestine
Ileocecal sphincter
at the end of the small intestine
Circular folds
increase surface area
Villi
finger like projections of mucosa, increase surface area for absorption, include lacteals for lipid absorption
Large intestine
also known as colon, where feces is made, where millions of good bacteria live. ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid, few folds, smooth
Defecation reflex
caused by rectum. farting
Diarrhea
insufficient removal of water by colon.
Constipation
too much water removed by colon
Jaundice
yellowish color to skin caused by a buildup of bilirubin,can indicate liver disease
Hepatitis A
spread by fecal contamination, mild
Hepatitis B
spread by sexual contact or contaminated blood, can cause cirrhosis or liver cancer
Hepatitis C
simmilar to hep. B but no vaccine
Peptic ulcers
craterlike lesions (sores) that develop in the GI tract, can cause bleeding
Cirrhosis
scarring of the liver
Gallstones
can block flow of bile from gallbladder
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
pain and alternating bouts of diarrhea/constipation
Inflammatory bowel disease
inflammation of any part of GI tract. Crohm's disease is one type.
Colorectal cancer
one of the leading causes of death from cancer, even though it's slow growing.