A Level Biology - DNA and Protein Synthesis
Terms in this set (25)
Complex chemicals made up of an organic base, a sugar and phosphate. Thay are the basic units of which nucleic acids DNA and RNA are made.
Adenine and Guanine
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
A nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine.
DNA and RNA
the type of bond that links the nucleotides in DNA or RNA. joins the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the hydroxyl group on the sugar of another nucleotide
All of an organism's genetic material.
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of a new DNA fragment to the 5' end of a growing chain.
Process in which unzipped DNA strands serve as templates for complementary strands.
DNA to mRNA
(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
An enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication.
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription, using a DNA strand as a template.
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA
A cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis.
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
the one DNA strand used as a template for transcription
a change in the base sequence of a gene
When a nitrogenous base gets switched with another. Generally less dangerous than insertion/deletion.
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
Sickle Cell anaemia
A genetic disorder linked to abnormal haemoglobin. A point mutation has replaced the amino acid glutamine with valine, disrupting the structure of haemoglobin.
a type of gene mutation in which a nucleotide is deleted