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Criminal Justice

Crime Scene Investigation-Criminology Ch. 12-19
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contact pattern
When an object with blood on it touches one that does not have blood on it, this produces a(n):
increases
Generally, bloodstain diameter ___________ as height increases.
all of the above
The deposition of backward spatter produced by a gunshot wound is determined by:
investigators use proper documentation and collection methods for all types of evidence
Crime scene reconstructions have the best chance of accuracy if:
the environmental condition of the scene
The approximate drying time of a pool of blood can be used to estimate timing of events at a crime scene and is dependent upon:
knife
Which weapon would create cast-off patterns consisting of small droplets in a linear pattern?
it can be concluded that the firearm was present during injury to the victim
If a murder victim's blood is found in the muzzle of a firearm:
in its direction of travel
The pointed end of a bloodstain always faces
less than
The amount of spatter from a blood droplet falling on a hard, nonporous surface is _____________ that of a drop of blood of equal size, falling from the same distance, onto a softer, porous surface.
all of the above
Crime scene reconstruction requires the piecing together of:
the results of DNA analysis performed on the root structure
In determining whether a hair sample originated from a male or a female, the MOST important consideration is:
all of the above
After examining small paint chips from an auto accident scene and using the PDQ database, the crime lab worker may be able to determine the __________ of the vehicle.
1 cm
The rate of human hair growth per month is:
cortex
Pigment granules that impart hair with color are found in the
medulla
The central canal running through many hairs is known as the
infrared spectrophotometry
Which step would produce "fingerprints" of the fibers?
scale pattern
Which feature of hair is MOST important in making a species identification?
mongoloid
Which race is most likely to have head hair with continuous medullae?
greater than
The presence of sheath cells on hair that has been pulled quickly from the head is __________ the presence of sheath cells on hairs that have been removed slowly from the scalp.
cuticle
Which part of the hair shaft is most resistant to chemical decomposition?
all of the above
Telltale signs of arson include:
all of the above
Arson investigators must work quickly to collect evidence at a fire scene because:
oxidation
The chemical reaction associated with a fire is:
finding the origin of the fire
When investigators search a fire scene, the first focus must be on:
The brand name used to start the fire
Which of the following cannot be determined from a laboratory examination of evidence recovered from an arson?
combustion
The rapid combination of oxygen with a fuel, which produces a noticeable release of energy is called:
GC
Which instrumentation is considered the most sensitive and reliable for detecting and characterizing flammable residues?
conduction
The movement of heat through a solid object is a process known as:
flash point
The minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel will produce enough vapor to burn is called the:
ignition temperature
The minimum temperature at which a fuel vapor will ignite is called:
nitroglycerin
Which of the following is NOT a military explosive?
high explosives
__________ explosives detonate almost instantaneously to produce a smashing or shattering effect.
acetone
Debris recovered from the site of an explosion is routinely rinsed with __________ in an attempt to recover explosive residues.
black powder
Which is NOT a high explosive?
they are widely used to help trace an explosive to its last legal possessor
What is NOT true about taggants?
acetone
Most explosives can be recovered from debris for future study by being rinsed with:
low explosives
Explosives that decompose at relatively slow rates are classified as:
ion-mobility spectrometry
A device used to screen objects for the presence of explosive residues is:
both B and C
The most widely used low explosive is:
potassium nitrate, charcoal, sulfur
The chemical ingredients of black powder are commonly:
during fetal development
Fingerprints are formed:
loop
The most common ridge pattern is the:
bifurcation and ridge ending
The most commonly encountered ridge characteristics (used by AFIS) are the:
computerized system for storing and retrieving fingerprint records
AFIS is a(n):
latent
Prints that are not readily visible are commonly referred to as:
No minimum exists. Final determination must be made based on experience and knowledge of the expert.
What is the minimum number of ridge characteristics necessary before two fingerprints can be identified as the same?
take a 1:1 photograph of the print
After successfully visualizing a latent print on an object an investigator should next:
none to date
Under which circumstances have two people been found to have identical fingerprints?
cardboard
Superglue fuming is NOT suitable for use on:
plastic
Prints impressed in a bar of soap are referred to as:
the edge of the trigger guard or by the checkered portion of the grip
To prevent the disturbance of latent fingerprints on a firearm, the weapon should be lifted by:
all of the above
Distinctive markings of shells and cartridges can be made by the:
barium and antimony
Two elements detected on the hands of an individual who has recently fired a weapon are:
all of the above
The comparison of two bullets is possible with the comparison microscope. Such as study is made difficult by the fact that:
database for firearm evidence
NIBIN is/are:
striation markings
evidence bullets must be carefully handled to avoid damage to the:
transported to the crime lab in a container with enough of the same water necessary to keep it submerged
When a gun is recovered from an underwater location, it should be:
less than
The likelihood of detecting GSR on swabs taken from living subjects more than six hours after a firing has occurred is __________ the likelihood of detecting GSR within two hours of a firing.
bullet will be made to spin and hence have a true and accurate course on leaving the barrel
The reason grooves are rifled into the bore of a fun is so that a:
SEM primer residue detection
Which technique of detecting GSR holds the most promise for the immediate future?
luminescence
The process by which the image is stored in memory by scanning and converting by computer into an array of digital intensity values called picture elements is known as:
all of the above
In dealing with fax machines, photocopiers and computer printers, which class characteristics might be examined?
prepare at least one copy of the text in full word-for-word order
If an investigator is to prepare standards from a suspect typewriter, the following procedure is recommended:
thin-layer chromatography
Inks on handwritten documents may be compared for their chemical composition by the technique of:
infrared radiation
Document examiners frequently uncover the original writing of words that have been crossed out with the aid of:
TLC
A data bank of ink dye patterns has been maintained by the U.S. Secret Service using:
all of the above
Questioned documents include
feed tray
Defects that are reproduced by a photocopier onto a copied document may originate from defects in all of the following photocopier parts except:
indented
__________ writings are partially visible impressions appearing on a sheet of paper underneath the one on which the visible writing was done.
fifth amendment privileges apply
With regard to the constitutionality of obtaining handwriting exemplars, the courts have ruled all of the following EXCEPT:
do so without altering the drive in any way
The ultimate goal of obtaining an image of a hard disk drive is to:
MDS
Software algorithm used to create a "fingerprint" of a file or an entire HDD is called:
procure a warrant to search
The first thing a crime scene investigator should do when encountering computer forensic evidence is:
the operating system
Which of the following is NOT considered a hardware device?
cookie
A(n) __________ is placed on a hard disk drive by a website to track certain information about its visitors.
the hard disk drive
The primary form of data storage within a personal computer is:
the FAT
What keeps track of the location of files and folders on the HDD?
all of the above
Which of the following is/are potential sources for forensic evidence on a suspect's personal computer?
all of the above
Evidentiary date may be recovered from which of the following?
A and B only
A Network Interface Card (NIC) enables a personal computer to communicate with other computers via: