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The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.

Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of

the hindsight bias.

The hindsight bias leads people to perceive research findings as


When we see certain outcomes as obvious based on what has occurred, we may be experiencing

hindsight bias.

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates


When provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams, people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams by themselves. This best illustrates


Basing decisions or conclusions on observable evidence describes which of the following?

empirical approach

A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates

critical thinking.

Critical thinkers can best be described as


To examine assumptions, discern hidden values, evaluate evidence, and assess conclusions is to engage in

critical thinking.

What do scientists call an explanation that organizes observations and predicts future behaviors or events?


A hypothesis is a(n)

testable prediction that gives direction to research.

Hypotheses are best described as


A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)

operational definition.

The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by

operational definitions.

Replication involves

repeating an earlier research study.

Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?


The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable


Which research method is typically used to examine one participant in depth, usually because the individual's situation/behavior is rare or unusual?

case study

Which of the following researchers used the case study method, carefully observing one exceptional individual in depth to reach conclusions that might be true of all of us?

Jean Piaget

The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it

may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.

A researcher interested in investigating the attitudes or opinions of a large sample of people is most likely to use which research method?


Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy." These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of

wording effects.

The complete set of cases from which samples may be drawn is called a(n)


Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?

random sampling

Which of the following is most useful for helping survey researchers avoid false generalizations?

random sampling

Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as

naturalistic observation.

To describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchers are most likely to make use of

naturalistic observation.

To compare the pace of life in different countries, investigators measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. This best illustrates the use of a research method known as

naturalistic observation.

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of


A correlation coefficient is a measure of the

direction and strength of the relationship between two variables.

To graphically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a


Which of the following is the best definition of illusory correlation?

a perceived but nonexistent correlation

The belief that weather conditions signal the onset of arthritis pain best illustrates

an illusory correlation.

The sequential occurrence of two highly unusual events is most likely to contribute to

an illusory correlation.

A research method in which an investigator manipulates factors that potentially produce a particular behavior is called a(n)


To exercise maximum control over the factors they are interested in studying, researchers engage in


The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of

experimental research.

Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between

causes and effects.

To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use

random assignment.

To minimize the extent to which outcome differences between experimental and control conditions can be attributed to placebo effects, researchers make use of

the double-blind procedure.

The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates

the placebo effect.

In a drug treatment study, participants given a pill containing no actual drug are receiving a(n)


To provide a baseline against which they can evaluate the effects of a specific treatment, experimenters make use of a(n)

control condition.

Which technique most clearly minimizes the likelihood that any outcome differences between the experimental and control conditions can be attributed to age or personality differences in research participants?

random assignment

Participants in an experiment are said to be blind if they are uninformed about

which experimental treatment, if any, they are receiving.

Which of the following is true for those assigned to the experimental group in an experiment?

The experimental group receives the experimental treatment

Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?

The experimental treatment is absent.

When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to

note the range and size of the scale values.

Bar graphs allow researchers to

compare groups.

The arithmetic average of a distribution of scores is the


The most commonly reported measure of central tendency is the


To understand the British newspaper headline "Income for 62% Is Below Average," it is necessary to appreciate the distinction between the ________ and the mean.


Which measure of central tendency would be most appropriate in determining housing values in a particular community?


Why would the median, rather than the mean, be the appropriate measure of central tendency in determining housing values in a particular community?

The median is minimally affected by extreme scores.

Which measure of central tendency would a baseball manager be most likely to rely on in picking a pinch hitter in a tie game?


The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution is the


The range is

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

Which of the following is a measure of the degree of variation among a set of events?

standard deviation

Which measure of variation is most affected by extreme scores?


If scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85 and 115?


Why are researchers careful to use large, representative samples in their studies?

Larger, representative sample sizes help ensure reliable and valid results.

If a result is statistically significant, this means that the

psychologist accepts a 5 percent likelihood that the results occurred by chance.

What do researchers call a difference between the means of experimental and control groups when they know the averages are reliable and the difference between the groups is unlikely due to random chance or extraneous variables?

statistically significant

Which of the following are considered to be limitations of psychological experiments conducted in laboratory environments?

Laboratories are artificial environments, so behavior might not apply to the real world.

Which of the following generalizations about culture and gender is most correct?

Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary by gender or across cultures, underlying principles are often very similar.

The enduring traditions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a large group of people constitutes their


Researchers have found that men and women learn to walk at about the same age, experience the same sensations of light, and exhibit similar overall intelligence. These findings support the idea that

the same underlying processes guide people everywhere.

Professional psychological associations require researchers to

minimize infection, illness, and pain in animal subjects.

The American Psychological Association and British Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to

explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed.

Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?

informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing

Psychologists' personal values and goals

can bias their observations and interpretations.

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