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OAT Physics Formulas
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Gravity
Terms in this set (137)
Velocity
v=Δd/Δt (m/s)
Acceleration
a=Δv/Δt (m/s²)
Force
F=ma (N)
Newton
kg x m/s²
Work
Fd (J)
KE
½mv² (J)
PE (gravitational)
mgh (J)
Power (as related to work)
W/∆t=fv (J/s)
J/s
kg x m² / s²
Density
ρ=m/V(volume) (kg/m²)
Pressure
P=F/A (A=πr² for a circle) (Pascals)
Hydrostatic Pressure (measured at a depth d from the surface of a liquid)
pogd (Pascal)
P=measured pressure, g=gravity, d=depth from surface
Pascal
kg/ms²
SI Unit of Length
m (meter)
SI Unit of Mass
kg (kilogram)
SI Unit of Time
s (second)
SI Unit of Electric Current
A (amperes)
SI Unit of Temperature
K (kelvin)
SI Unit of Luminous Intensity
Cd (candela)
Derived Unit of Volume
m³
Derived Unit of Force
N (Newton)
Derived Unit of Energy/Work
J (Joule)
Derived Unit of Power
W (Watt)
Derived Unit of Pressure
Pa (Pascal)
Derived Unit of Charge
C (Coulomb)
Derived Unit of Resistance
Ω (Ohms)
Derived Unit of Capacitance
F (Farads)
Pythagorean Theorem
a² + b² = c²
Vectors
Magnitude and direction
Scalars
Magnitude only
Sin 90°
1
Sin 60°
0.87
Sin 30°
0.5
Sin 0°
0
Cos 90°
0
Cos 60°
0.5
Cos 30°
0.87
Cos 0°
1
Electric Field Strength
E=F/q (N/C)
Force of an Electric Field
F=qE (N/C)
Potential Energy (electric)
PE = qV
Voltage
V = PE/q or V= IR or V= k q/r
Current
I=q/t (Amps)
Resistance
R = V/I or R=p L/A
Capacitance
C=Q/V
Magnetic Field Strength
F=qvBsinθ or B=F/qvsinθ (Tesla)
F=ILBsinθ or B=F/ILsinθ
Sinθ
O/H
Cosθ
A/H
Tanθ
O/A
Displacement
∆x (change in position)
Kinematics
d= vt (no a)
d= v(avg)t (constant a)
d= v0t + ½at² (constant a) (just ½at² when starting from rest)
vf²= v0² + 2ad (constant a - no time given)
Projectile Motion
Time to max ht: 0-v(yi)/g
max ht: =v(yavg)t=v(yi)/2 x tup
total time = 2t(up)
Horizontal displacement: v(x)t(total)
Newton's First Law
An object's velocity remains constant unless a net force is acting upon it (∑F=0, v=constant)
Newton's Second Law
∑F=ma
Newton's Third Law
For every force exerted by one object on a second object, there is an equal but opposite force by the second object on the first
F(2-1)=-F(1-2)
Weight
W=mg (kg)
Force of Gravity
F=G m₁m₂/r² (G=6.67x10⁻¹¹, on earth G=9.8m/s²)
Kinetic Friction
Ff= μ(k)F(N)
Static Friction
Ff= μ(s)mn(normal force)
Centripetal Acceleration
ac= v²/r
Centripetal Force
F= mv²/r=mac
Total Mechanical Energy
E = KE+PE
Conservation of ME
½mv²(i) + mgh(i) = ½mv²(f) + mgh(f) (no work done by conservative forces)
W=∆E (work performed by nonconservative forces, ME is not conserved)
Work Energy Theorem
W=∆KE
Momentum
p=mv
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
F∆t=∆mv
COLLISIONS
SEE SHEET
Angular Displacement
∆θ (d= r)
Angular Velocity
ω=∆θ/∆t (v=r ω)
Angular Acceleration
α=∆ ω/∆t (a=rα)
SEE ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS EQUATIONS
SEE ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS EQUATIONS
Center of Mass
t=m₁x₁ +m₂x₂..../m₁+m₂....
Torque
=Fx(lever arm) or t=Iα
Inertia
I=∑mr² (for pt masses about an axis)
Angular Momentum
L=I ω
Rotational KE
½ I ω²
Specific Gravity
p/p(water)
p(h₂o)
1000kg/m³
Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy Force)
W(fluid displaced)=p(fluid)V(submerged)g
If floating, Fb=Wobject
% submerged
p(object)/p(fluid) x100
Simple Harmonic Motion
x=Acos ωt or x=Asin ωt or x=Acos (ωt + phase shift) (A=amplitude, ω=frequency factor)
Frequency Factor
ω=2πf = 2π/T
Frequency
f = 1/T
T=time period
Spring Frequency Factor
ω=√k/m (whackem)
Pendulum Frequency Factor
ω=√g/l (wiggle)
Spring Force
F = -kx (k=spring constant, x=displacement from eq. position)
Spring PE
½kx²
Hydraulic Jack
F₁/A₁ = F₂/A₂ A₁d₁=A₂D₂
Flow Rate
f = Av (A=CSA - circle = πr²)
Bernoulli's Equation
P₁ + ½pv₂(i) + pgy(t) = P₂ + ½pv₂² + pgy₂
(p1 up, p2 down)
Sound
λf=v
Speed of sound in gases
v = √P/p
Standing Waves
λ(n)=2L/n (pipe open at both ends n=1,2,3,4)
λ(n)=4L/n (pipe open at one end n=odd#)
Intensity (MORE ON SHEET)
I=P/A = P/4π²
Doppler Effect
SEE SHEET - SAME THING 2X
Fo=Fs v±Vo/V±vs
Fo>Fs object and source are moving towards each other
Fs
Elasticity of Solids
modulus x strain
Young's Modulus Stretching/Compression
F/A = Y ∆L/L₀
Shear Deformation
F/A = S ∆X/L₀
Bulk Modulus Volume Deformation
AP = -B∆V/V₀
Coulomb's Law
F = k q₁q₂/r²
Electric Field due to a point charge
E = k q/r²
Resistors in Series
Req = R₁ + R₂ + .....
same current, diff voltage
Resistors in Parallel
1/Req = 1/R₁ + 1/R₂ + ....
diff current, same voltage
Power (as related to current/electricity)
P = VI = I²R = V²/R
AC V(rms)
V(rms) = V(max)/√2
AC I(rms)
I(rms) = I(max)/√2
Parallel Plate Capacitor
C = (k)ε₀ A/d V=Ed
PE in Capacitor
PE = ½CV²
Capacitors in Series
1/Ceq = 1/C₁ + 1/C₂ + ....
Capacitors in Parallel
Ceq = C₁ + C₂ + ....
Charged Particle in Mag. Field
F = qvBsinθ RHR: thumb = v, fingers = B, palm = force
Current-carrying wire in a Magnetic Field
F = ILBsinθ RHR: thumb = I, fingers = B, palm = force
Magnetic Field due to a current carrying wire
B = µ₀I/2πr RHR: thumb = I, fingers (curled) = B
XXXXXXXXXX
Into page (away from me)
oooooooooo
Out of page (towards me)
Light
λf = v
Energy of a photon
E = hf = hc/λ
Law of Reflection
Angle of Incidence = Angle of reflection
Snell's Law of Refraction
n₁sinθ₁ = n₂sinθ₂
Index of refraction
n = c/v
Total internal reflection
Sinθ = n₂/n₁
Double Slit Interference: Bright Fringes
dsinθ = mλ
Double Slit Interference: Dark Fringes
dsinθ = (m+½)λ
Diffraction Grating: Bright Fringes
dsinθ=mλ
Single Slit Diffraction: Dark Fringes
asinθ=mλ
Thin Films
2t=(m+½)λ(film) =no phase shift
2t=mλ(film)
Mirrors and Lenses
1/d₀+1/di=1/f
Magnification
-di/d₀=hi/h₀
Focal length
f=½R
Lens Strength
1/f (diopters; f must be in meters)
di>0
real and inverted
di<0
virtual and upright
m>0
upright
m<0
inverted
v/t graph =
read simply, no slope
area = displacement
x/t graph =
use slope for velocity (x/t)
displacement = use y axis
1 atm =
760 mmHg or 1.01 x 10⁵ Pa
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