OAT Physics Formulas

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PressureP=F/A (A=πr² for a circle) (Pascals)Hydrostatic Pressure (measured at a depth d from the surface of a liquid)pogd (Pascal) P=measured pressure, g=gravity, d=depth from surfacePascalkg/ms²SI Unit of Lengthm (meter)SI Unit of Masskg (kilogram)SI Unit of Times (second)SI Unit of Electric CurrentA (amperes)SI Unit of TemperatureK (kelvin)SI Unit of Luminous IntensityCd (candela)Derived Unit of VolumeDerived Unit of ForceN (Newton)Derived Unit of Energy/WorkJ (Joule)Derived Unit of PowerW (Watt)Derived Unit of PressurePa (Pascal)Derived Unit of ChargeC (Coulomb)Derived Unit of ResistanceΩ (Ohms)Derived Unit of CapacitanceF (Farads)Pythagorean Theorema² + b² = c²VectorsMagnitude and directionScalarsMagnitude onlySin 90°1Sin 60°0.87Sin 30°0.5Sin 0°0Cos 90°0Cos 60°0.5Cos 30°0.87Cos 0°1Electric Field StrengthE=F/q (N/C)Force of an Electric FieldF=qE (N/C)Potential Energy (electric)PE = qVVoltageV = PE/q or V= IR or V= k q/rCurrentI=q/t (Amps)ResistanceR = V/I or R=p L/ACapacitanceC=Q/VMagnetic Field StrengthF=qvBsinθ or B=F/qvsinθ (Tesla) F=ILBsinθ or B=F/ILsinθSinθO/HCosθA/HTanθO/ADisplacement∆x (change in position)Kinematicsd= vt (no a) d= v(avg)t (constant a) d= v0t + ½at² (constant a) (just ½at² when starting from rest) vf²= v0² + 2ad (constant a - no time given)Projectile MotionTime to max ht: 0-v(yi)/g max ht: =v(yavg)t=v(yi)/2 x tup total time = 2t(up) Horizontal displacement: v(x)t(total)Newton's First LawAn object's velocity remains constant unless a net force is acting upon it (∑F=0, v=constant)Newton's Second Law∑F=maNewton's Third LawFor every force exerted by one object on a second object, there is an equal but opposite force by the second object on the first F(2-1)=-F(1-2)WeightW=mg (kg)Force of GravityF=G m₁m₂/r² (G=6.67x10⁻¹¹, on earth G=9.8m/s²)Kinetic FrictionFf= μ(k)F(N)Static FrictionFf= μ(s)mn(normal force)Centripetal Accelerationac= v²/rCentripetal ForceF= mv²/r=macTotal Mechanical EnergyE = KE+PEConservation of ME½mv²(i) + mgh(i) = ½mv²(f) + mgh(f) (no work done by conservative forces) W=∆E (work performed by nonconservative forces, ME is not conserved)Work Energy TheoremW=∆KEMomentump=mvImpulse-Momentum TheoremF∆t=∆mvCOLLISIONSSEE SHEETAngular Displacement∆θ (d= r)Angular Velocityω=∆θ/∆t (v=r ω)Angular Accelerationα=∆ ω/∆t (a=rα)SEE ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS EQUATIONSSEE ROTATIONAL KINEMATICS EQUATIONSCenter of Masst=m₁x₁ +m₂x₂..../m₁+m₂....Torque=Fx(lever arm) or t=IαInertiaI=∑mr² (for pt masses about an axis)Angular MomentumL=I ωRotational KE½ I ω²Specific Gravityp/p(water)p(h₂o)1000kg/m³Archimedes Principle (Buoyancy Force)W(fluid displaced)=p(fluid)V(submerged)g If floating, Fb=Wobject% submergedp(object)/p(fluid) x100Simple Harmonic Motionx=Acos ωt or x=Asin ωt or x=Acos (ωt + phase shift) (A=amplitude, ω=frequency factor)Frequency Factorω=2πf = 2π/TFrequencyf = 1/T T=time periodSpring Frequency Factorω=√k/m (whackem)Pendulum Frequency Factorω=√g/l (wiggle)Spring ForceF = -kx (k=spring constant, x=displacement from eq. position)Spring PE½kx²Hydraulic JackF₁/A₁ = F₂/A₂ A₁d₁=A₂D₂Flow Ratef = Av (A=CSA - circle = πr²)Bernoulli's EquationP₁ + ½pv₂(i) + pgy(t) = P₂ + ½pv₂² + pgy₂ (p1 up, p2 down)Soundλf=vSpeed of sound in gasesv = √P/pStanding Wavesλ(n)=2L/n (pipe open at both ends n=1,2,3,4) λ(n)=4L/n (pipe open at one end n=odd#)Intensity (MORE ON SHEET)I=P/A = P/4π²Doppler Effect SEE SHEET - SAME THING 2XFo=Fs v±Vo/V±vs Fo>Fs object and source are moving towards each other FsElasticity of Solidsmodulus x strainYoung's Modulus Stretching/CompressionF/A = Y ∆L/L₀Shear DeformationF/A = S ∆X/L₀Bulk Modulus Volume DeformationAP = -B∆V/V₀Coulomb's LawF = k q₁q₂/r²Electric Field due to a point chargeE = k q/r²Resistors in SeriesReq = R₁ + R₂ + ..... same current, diff voltageResistors in Parallel1/Req = 1/R₁ + 1/R₂ + .... diff current, same voltagePower (as related to current/electricity)P = VI = I²R = V²/RAC V(rms)V(rms) = V(max)/√2AC I(rms)I(rms) = I(max)/√2Parallel Plate CapacitorC = (k)ε₀ A/d V=EdPE in CapacitorPE = ½CV²Capacitors in Series1/Ceq = 1/C₁ + 1/C₂ + ....Capacitors in ParallelCeq = C₁ + C₂ + ....Charged Particle in Mag. FieldF = qvBsinθ RHR: thumb = v, fingers = B, palm = forceCurrent-carrying wire in a Magnetic FieldF = ILBsinθ RHR: thumb = I, fingers = B, palm = forceMagnetic Field due to a current carrying wireB = µ₀I/2πr RHR: thumb = I, fingers (curled) = BXXXXXXXXXXInto page (away from me)ooooooooooOut of page (towards me)Lightλf = vEnergy of a photonE = hf = hc/λLaw of ReflectionAngle of Incidence = Angle of reflectionSnell's Law of Refractionn₁sinθ₁ = n₂sinθ₂Index of refractionn = c/vTotal internal reflectionSinθ = n₂/n₁Double Slit Interference: Bright Fringesdsinθ = mλDouble Slit Interference: Dark Fringesdsinθ = (m+½)λDiffraction Grating: Bright Fringesdsinθ=mλSingle Slit Diffraction: Dark Fringesasinθ=mλThin Films2t=(m+½)λ(film) =no phase shift 2t=mλ(film)Mirrors and Lenses1/d₀+1/di=1/fMagnification-di/d₀=hi/h₀Focal lengthf=½RLens Strength1/f (diopters; f must be in meters)di>0real and inverteddi<0virtual and uprightm>0uprightm<0invertedv/t graph =read simply, no slope area = displacementx/t graph =use slope for velocity (x/t) displacement = use y axis1 atm =760 mmHg or 1.01 x 10⁵ Pa