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Sociology: The Essentials CHAPTER 15
Terms in this set (62)
The system by which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed.
Societies organized around the provision of information and services, services encompassing a wide range of economic activities now common in the labor market.
An economic system based on the principles of market competition, private property, and the pursuit of profit. Stockholders own corporations- or a share of the corporation's wealth. Owners keep a surplus of what is generated by the economy, their profit.
An economic system characterized by state/government ownership and management of the basic industries; that is, the means of production are the property of the state, not of the individual. Modern socialism derived from Karl Marx, who predicted that capitalism would give way to egalitarianism (state-dominated socialism) followed by a transition to stateless, classless communism.
An economic system where industry is not the private property of owners. Instead, the state is the sole owner of the systems of production.
All dimensions of the economy now cross national borders, including investment, production, management, markets, labor, info, and technology.
Corporations that draw a large share of their revenues from foreign investments and conduct business across national borders. They have become increasingly powerful, spreading their influence around the globe.
Global Assembly Line
A new international division of labor in which research and development is conducted in the U.S., Japan, Germany, and the other major world powers, and the assembly of goods is done primarily in underdeveloped and poor nations- mostly by women and children.
The transfer of a specialized task from one organization to another that occurs for cost saving; often, the work is transferred to a different nation.
The fear and hatred of foreigners.
The contemporary transformations in the basic structure of work that are permanently altering the workplace.
The transition from a predominantly goods-producing economy to one based on the provision of services.
The permanent loss of certain job types that occurs when employment patterns shift.
Job displacement hits people in both rural and inner cities because emerging new industries tend to be located in suburban, not urban it rural, areas.
The prices by which human labor is replaced by machines.
Prices by which the level of skill required for performing certain jobs declined over time.
Temporary workers who don't hold regular jobs; have become increasingly relied upon because of deskilling.
Guest Worker Programs
Created by European nations to provide the labor that immigrants provide.
Productive student activity that creates something of value, either goods or services.
Work specifically intended to produce a desired state of mind in a client and involves putting a false front before clients.
Division of Labor
The systematic relatedness of different tasks that develop in complex societies.
Class Division of Labor
The division of labor that can be observed by looking at the work done by people with different educational backgrounds, because education is a fairly reliable indicator of class.
Gender Division of Labor
The different work men and women do in society.
Term used to describe the limits to advancement that women, as well as racial-ethnic people and minorities, experience at work.
The array of jobs that together constitute the labor market.
Dual Labor Market
Market divided into the labor market (relatively high wages, benefits, stability, good working conditions, opportunity for promotion, job protection, and due process for workers) and the secondary labor market (low wages, few benefits, high turnover, poor working conditions, little opportunity for advancement, no job protection, no retirement plan, arbitrary treatment of workers).
Segregation on the basis of race, class, and gender.
The perceived social value of an occupation in the eyes of the general public.
The condition of being employed at a skill level below what would be expected given a person's training, experience, or education.
Unwanted physical or verbal sexual behavior that occurs in the context of a relationship of unequal power and that is experienced as a threat to the victim's job or educational activities.
Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harrassment
Forced sexual compliance in exchange for employment or educational gain.
Irving Zola (1935-1994)
One of the first to suggest that people with disabilities face issues similar to those of minority groups.
Work and the economy are functional necessities for society; society sorts people into occupations.
A feeling of powerlessness and separation from society.
Argued that mental labor has always been more highly valued than manual labor.
The transformations taking place in the workplace are the results of inherent tensions in the social systems, tensions that arise from the power differences between groups vying for social and economic resources.
What work means to people and how social interactions in the workplace form social bonds.
The organized system of power and authority in society.
There is a representative government with elections by the population and, typically, a multiparty political system.
Where power is concentrated in the hands of a very few individuals who rule through centralized power and control.
An extreme form of authoritarianism where the state has total control over all aspects of public and private life.
Messages with the intention to justify the state's power.
The state can direct public opinion and try to enforce a singular way of thinking- that of the dominant group.
The strong identity associated with an extreme sense of allegiance to one's culture or nation.
The ability of one person or group to exercise influence and control over others.
Power perceived by others as legitimate and formal.
Power achieved through force.
Max Weber (1864-1920)
The German classical socialist who postulated that traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal forms of authority exist.
Authority that stems from long-established patterns that give certain people or groups legitimate power in society.
Authority that is derived from the personal appeal of the leader.
Authority that stems from rules and regulations, typically written down as laws, procedures, or codes of conduct.
A formal organization characterized by an authority hierarchy, a clear division of labor, explicit rules, and impersonality.
Interprets power in society as derived from the representation of diverse interests of different groups in society.
Any constituency in society organized to promote its own agenda, including large, nationally based groups such as the American Association of Retire Persons (AARP).
Political Action Committees (PACs)
Groups of people who organize to support candidates they feel will represent their views.
Power Elite Model
The dominant or ruling class controls all the major institutions in society; the state itself is simply an instrument by which the ruling class exercises its power.
Organizational linkages created when the same people sit on the boards of several major companies, universities, and foundations at the same time.
Autonomous State Model
Model that interprets the state as its own major constituent; it develops interests of its own, which it seeks to promote independently of other interests and the public that it allegedly serves.
Includes those institutions that represent the population, making rules that govern the society.
Government whose principle is representation of all people through the right to vote.
The differences between men and women in political attitudes and behavior.
Privatization of the Military
An increasing number of military functions have been paid on a contract basis to private, for-profit employers.
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