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Terms in this set (32)
What are sarcomas?
Tumors from bone or soft tissue of musculoskeletal system (muscle/fat/fibrous)
What is the most common soft tissue sarcoma?
What are the most common bone sarcomas?
Ewing sarcoma= 2nd most common
What syndromes increase risk of a sarcoma?
1) li-fraumeni ( both soft and bone)
2) neurofibromatosis ( soft tissue sarcoma)
3) retinoblastoma ( osteosarcoma)
Most common soft tissue sarcoma which effect skeletal muscle of the head, neck, GU and extremities
Most common bone sarcoma which causes pain and mass at epiphysis often after trauma
1) distal femur
2) proximal tibia
3) promise humerus
Describe a Ewing sarcoma
2nd most common bone sarcoma which is a multi centric tumor causing pain and fever; it's often mistaken for osteomyelitis and can be in any bone but most common in femur and pelvis
How are sarcomas diagnosed?
1) biopsy with light microscopy findings
2) biopsy with immunohistochemical and cytogenic analysis to differentiate rhabdo and ewing
What is found in Ewing 95% of the time?
2 types of rhabdo?
Embryonal vs alveolar?
Embryonal = young/GU/head/neck
What is the treatment for each sarcoma?
How is the treatment of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma different?
Osteo does not respond well to chemo or rad. Ewing does respond well to rad.
Prognosis of sarcoma?
Depends on the degree of tumor necrosis after neoadjuvent chemo (mets=poor)
What is the leading cause of childhood mortality? 2nd leading cause?
Neoadjuvent vs adjuvant?
Neoadjuvent=chemo with tumor in place
Adjuvent= after tumor excision
What does tumor lysis syndrome increase your risk for?
2) cardiac arrest
Most common childhood cancer?
What is the purpose of the induction phase/consolidation phase/continuation phase?
Induction phase= induce remission
Consolidation phase= intensive txt
Continuation phase= prevent relapse
What is EBV also known as?
Hodgkins lymphoma and derived form B lymphocytes
2 types of gliomas?
Most common locations of neuroblastomas?
3) para spinal area
Horner's syndrome triad?
What percent of neuroblastomas make catecholamines?
What is the most common presentation of a Wilms tumor?
Abdominal mass found by parent
Think sarcoma and germline p53
Classic osteosarcoma presentation
Onion skin/moth eaten?
Classic Ewing sarcoma
Most common in birth to 3 years old?
Neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma, retinoblastoma
Most common in 2-5 years old?
Over 10 years old?
What are the signs and symptoms associated with ovarian cancer?
what is color ? (malignant melanoma)
What are the cells like in Iron Deficiency Anemia?
What are the majority of breast cancers?
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