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language convergence

The contact of one long isolated language to other languages.

language divergence

The difference found in languages, why and how, through time and space.

language replacement

The replacement of a language by another language through force of invasion.

Sound Shifts

A word being changed in sound and form through different languages.

deep reconstruction

The backwords tracking and recreation of a language which preceded a language used today.

Proto Indo-European

Languages in which preceded Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, and others.


The core of a Pre-Proto Indo-European language.


Second oldest and longest, but much less widely diffused family of the three indigenous languages.


Oldest and longest family of the three indigenous languages.


Last-found in arctic shores and regions.

Agriculture Theory

Agriculture was the main cause of the taking-over of a language in this theory.

Conquest Theory

Taking over of a language by conquest.


Systematic study of place-names.

Official Language

One language in a country.

Monolingual States

Countries in which only one language is spoken.

Multilingual States

Countries in which more than one language is in use.

Lingua Franca

One common language used for trade between at least two different language speaking groups.


Changes of a language.


The original pidgin.


An attempt to establish one world language.


Communicating using signs, gestures, and noises.


Regional varients of a standard language.

Language Family

Groups that are thought to have a shared, but fairly distinct, origin.

Language Subfamily

When their commonality is more definite.

Language Group

Consists of sets of individual languages.


A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.

Preliterate Society

People who speak their language but do not write it.

Standard Language

A normal language for a particular society.

Indo-European Languages

Mostly an English language.

Religious Fundamentalism

A violent drive to a religious leader's faith.

Interfaith Boundary

The boundaries between the worlds major faith.

Intrafaith Boundary

Boundaries within a single faith.


A haven for the activities of Islamic Extremists.

Sharia Religious Law

Harsh laws resulting from criminal code.

Ethnic Cleansing

Describes the ouster of Muslims and others from their nomes and lands.


A term that connates social situation, not just biology.


The right to vote.

Longevity Gap

The gap of life expectancy between men and women.

Maternal Mortality Rate

Maternal deaths per 100,00 births.

Female Infecticide

Aborting a female child illegally.

Dowry Deaths

A bride's death caused upon grooms parents for not having a boy.

Female Genitalia mutilation (FGM)

The complete or partial removal of the female clitoris.

Caste System

Locks people into particular social classes.


Lowest of the castes.


"What goes around comes around"


Multiple Lives


A controlling force.


Idea of a homeland of Jewish people.


The spatial dispersion of members of an ethnic group.


When Jews went North to Central Europe.


Those who scattered across North Africa and into the Iberian Penninsyla.


Followers of Ali.


Shows that human decision making is the crucial factor in cultural development, not the environment.


The behaviors, beliefs, and characteristics of a particular social, ethnic, or age group.

Cultural Diffusion

The spreading of a cultural element.

Cultural Landscape

The forms and and artifacts placed on the physical landscape by the activities of humans.

Culture Hearth

Place of origin of a culture.

Culture Trait

A single element of a culture.

Culture Complex

A related set of culture traits.

Culture Realm

A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.

Culture Region

A region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.

Culture System

Culture complexes divided into certain groups.

Sequent Occupance

To refer to such cultural succession.


Spatial spreading of an element.

Expansion Diffusion

Spread of an idea that grows continuously larger.

Relocation Diffusion

Movement of people and things.


Cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing.


Process through which people lose originally differentiating traits.


Occurs when different cultures come into close contact.

Contagious Diffusion

Spreading of an idea by contact from person to person.

Hierarchical Diffusion

Idea spreads by trickling down.

Stimulus Diffusion

Involves behavior as well as ideas.

Independent Invention

Invention created in two different places.

Environmental Determinism

View that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life.

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