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74 terms

unit 3

STUDY
PLAY
language convergence
The contact of one long isolated language to other languages.
language divergence
The difference found in languages, why and how, through time and space.
language replacement
The replacement of a language by another language through force of invasion.
Sound Shifts
A word being changed in sound and form through different languages.
deep reconstruction
The backwords tracking and recreation of a language which preceded a language used today.
Proto Indo-European
Languages in which preceded Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit, and others.
Nostratic
The core of a Pre-Proto Indo-European language.
Na-Dene
Second oldest and longest, but much less widely diffused family of the three indigenous languages.
Amerind
Oldest and longest family of the three indigenous languages.
Eskimo-Aleot
Last-found in arctic shores and regions.
Agriculture Theory
Agriculture was the main cause of the taking-over of a language in this theory.
Conquest Theory
Taking over of a language by conquest.
Toponymy
Systematic study of place-names.
Official Language
One language in a country.
Monolingual States
Countries in which only one language is spoken.
Multilingual States
Countries in which more than one language is in use.
Lingua Franca
One common language used for trade between at least two different language speaking groups.
Pidgin
Changes of a language.
Creole
The original pidgin.
Esperanto
An attempt to establish one world language.
Language
Communicating using signs, gestures, and noises.
Dialect
Regional varients of a standard language.
Language Family
Groups that are thought to have a shared, but fairly distinct, origin.
Language Subfamily
When their commonality is more definite.
Language Group
Consists of sets of individual languages.
Isogloss
A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.
Preliterate Society
People who speak their language but do not write it.
Standard Language
A normal language for a particular society.
Indo-European Languages
Mostly an English language.
Religious Fundamentalism
A violent drive to a religious leader's faith.
Interfaith Boundary
The boundaries between the worlds major faith.
Intrafaith Boundary
Boundaries within a single faith.
Jihad
A haven for the activities of Islamic Extremists.
Sharia Religious Law
Harsh laws resulting from criminal code.
Ethnic Cleansing
Describes the ouster of Muslims and others from their nomes and lands.
Gender
A term that connates social situation, not just biology.
Enfranchisement
The right to vote.
Longevity Gap
The gap of life expectancy between men and women.
Maternal Mortality Rate
Maternal deaths per 100,00 births.
Female Infecticide
Aborting a female child illegally.
Dowry Deaths
A bride's death caused upon grooms parents for not having a boy.
Female Genitalia mutilation (FGM)
The complete or partial removal of the female clitoris.
Caste System
Locks people into particular social classes.
Untouchables
Lowest of the castes.
Karma
"What goes around comes around"
Reincarnation
Multiple Lives
Brahman
A controlling force.
Zionism
Idea of a homeland of Jewish people.
Diaspora
The spatial dispersion of members of an ethnic group.
Ashkenazim
When Jews went North to Central Europe.
Sephardim
Those who scattered across North Africa and into the Iberian Penninsyla.
Shiite
Followers of Ali.
Possibilism
Shows that human decision making is the crucial factor in cultural development, not the environment.
Culture
The behaviors, beliefs, and characteristics of a particular social, ethnic, or age group.
Cultural Diffusion
The spreading of a cultural element.
Cultural Landscape
The forms and and artifacts placed on the physical landscape by the activities of humans.
Culture Hearth
Place of origin of a culture.
Culture Trait
A single element of a culture.
Culture Complex
A related set of culture traits.
Culture Realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
Culture Region
A region within which common cultural characteristics prevail.
Culture System
Culture complexes divided into certain groups.
Sequent Occupance
To refer to such cultural succession.
Diffusion
Spatial spreading of an element.
Expansion Diffusion
Spread of an idea that grows continuously larger.
Relocation Diffusion
Movement of people and things.
Acculturation
Cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing.
Assimilation
Process through which people lose originally differentiating traits.
Transculturation
Occurs when different cultures come into close contact.
Contagious Diffusion
Spreading of an idea by contact from person to person.
Hierarchical Diffusion
Idea spreads by trickling down.
Stimulus Diffusion
Involves behavior as well as ideas.
Independent Invention
Invention created in two different places.
Environmental Determinism
View that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life.