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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Unit I: 1450-1648 (Key Concept 1.2)
Terms in this set (20)
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but resulted in a split of Christianity with the creation of Protestant religions like Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, etc.
Catholic Abuses in pre-Reformation era
Sale of Indulgence-paying $ to the Church so a person could escape purgatory and go to heaven;
Nepotism-the leaders (bishops, archbishops, etc.) of the church would give positions of power to their relatives;
Simony--practice of selling leadership positions in the church;
Absenteeism--An official not participating in local responsibilities of the church but receiving payment and privileges;
German monk who, in 1517, launched the Protestant Reformation in reaction to corruption in the Catholic Church. His followers, called Lutherans, downplayed the Catholic church's centralized power, emphasizing faith (sola fidelis) and the bible (sola scriptura). Posted 95 Theses.
1517 (HUB DATE)
Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses.
- Represents the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
Holy Roman Emperor, but also King Charles of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united under Catholicism. He inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents. He tried to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He worked with the pope to religious unity in Europe.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) In order to solve religious battles between princes of the Holy Roman Empire, peace treaty in which Charles V of HRE recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion. The prince of each territory determined the religion of his subjects. Demonstrates state actions that developed to control religion and morality.
1555 (HUB DATE)
Peace of Augsburg,
-Represents the height of era in which religious war and tension dominate and secular politicians try to take control of religious decisions.
A Protestant religion that had different interpretation of the Bible--only adults could make a free choice regarding religion and so baptism was an action taken in adulthood; they advocated pacifism, separation of church and state (the church was not less important than the state), and a democratic church organization.
(1509-1564) Developed the Protestant religion known as Calvinism. Set up community w/ an extreme moral code, denying the goodness of the human nature. French religious thinker who established a theocracy in Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination.
Calvinists in France, including many from the French nobility wishing to challenge the authority of the Catholic monarch. Development of this group led to French Wars of Religion which was a series of civil war between Catholics and Huguenots (St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre). Eventually this violence led to The Edict of Nantes (1598) which freed them from persecution in France.
Calvinist sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic elements. Included many from the English nobility wishing to challenge the authority of the English monarch. Development of this group would eventually led to religious tension in England vs. Anglicans and the English Civil War. *Some puritans would eventually flee England and colonize New World, think Pilgrims.
The pope refused to grant a divorce between King Henry VIII and his Spanish wife. In response to this, the King broke England's ties with the Catholic Church and established himself as the head of Church of England (Anglican Church). Eventually Henry VIII daughter would rule England and the Church. Example of a state actions to control religion and morality.
16th Century. In response to the Protestant Reformation, Catholic authorities undertook an reform effort within their own church. Roman Catholic authorities defined beliefs so to clarify the differences between the Catholic and Protestant churches. They also attempted to persuade the Protestants to return to the Catholic church. i.e. Jesuits Order, Council of Trent, St Theresa of Avila, Index of Prohibited Books, Roman Inquisition
In the 1600s and early 1700s Baroque artists employed power, drama, and illusion in works commissioned by monarchies and the church to promote their stature and power. Part of the Counter Reformation. Displayed a religious themes and inspired awe of the church and monarch's power. i.e. Artemisia Gentileschi, Gian Bernini, Peter Paul Rubens
State Exploitation of Religious Conflicts in 16th and 17th C*
Monarchs used religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests.
i.e. Spanish Armada-- King Phillip II sent a fleet of ships to England to defeat them but lost and gave England naval domination. Publicly about religion, but mostly about Spain trying to eliminate England as a rival on the Atlantic.
i.e. Thirty Years War--(1618-48) A series of European wars mostly in the HRE that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a battle between France and their rivals the Hapsburgs, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. Ended with the Peace of Westphalia
Son of Charles V, King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings. Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.
1588 (HUB DATE)
Spanish Armada -
-Represents the beginning of era in which religious war and tension dominate and secular politicians try to take control of religious decisions.
-Represent the beginning of rise English dominance and beginning of the fall of Spanish dominance.
French Wars of Religion
Catherine de Medicis (ruled for her son, the king) opposed the Calvinists (many French Nobles were Calvinist) and ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France. A war in France between the Catholics and the Calvinists, got very violent. Eventually led to Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) who is a Huguenot to be named King. He converts to Catholicism to maintain peace, but issues Edict of Nantes.
Edict of Nantes
(1598) A decree that made Catholicism the official religion of France, but also gave religious freedoms to Protestants.
A few states, such as France with the Edict of Nantes, allowed religious pluralism in order to maintain domestic peace. The condition in which one or more religions coexist either as complementary to each other or as competing systems. Others include Poland, Netherlands and Elizabethan England.
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