30 terms

Ch 9 Sectionalism

Key Names, Events, and Terms from the 2010 Amsco book Note: If changes are necessary, please notify me in the chat box.
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sectionalism
Loyalty to a particular region, which ultimately led the Union's worst crisis;: civil war between the North and the South in the early 1860s
Daniel Webster
He rhetorically referred to the North, South, and West as three sections in terms of the four main points of the compass as he attempted to portray the dangers these divisions hold for the nation
Industrial Revolution
Period from the 18th to the 19th century, which originally centered in the textile industry, but by the 1830s, northern factories were producing a wide range of goods. It also offered many opportunities, which attracted both native-born Americans from the farms and European immigrants
unions
Organized by urban workers due to the common problems of long pay, long hours, and unsafe working conditions
Commonwealth v. Hunt
Supreme Court case which ruled that "peaceful unions" had the right to negotiate labor contracts with employers
urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Cyrus McCormick
Invented the mechanical reaper
John Deere
Invented the steel plow
new cities
At transportation sites, what had once been small villages and towns grew into thriving cities. These served as transfer points, processing farm products for shipment to the East, and also distributing manufactured goods from the East to different parts of the region
Irish
Accounted for half of all the immigrants, almost 2 million. These immigrants were mostly tenant farmers driven from their homeland by potato crop failures and a devastating famine in the 1840s, and they now had limited interest in farming, few other skills, and little money. They faced strong discrimination because of their Roman Catholic religion. They worked hard at whatever employment they could find, usually competing with African Americans for domestic work and unskilled laborer jobs. They also congregated for mutual support in northern cities. These immigrants also joined the Democratic party
potato famine
Primary factor that caused Irish immigration
Germans
Both economic hardships and the failure of democratic revolutions in 1848 caused over 1 million of these immigrants to seek refuge in the United States. Most had at least modest means as well as considerable skills as farmers and artisans. Moving westward in search of cheap, fertile farmland, they established homesteads throughout the Old Northwest and generally prospered. At first their political influence was limited, however as they became more active, they became strong supporters of public education and staunch opponents of slavery
Nativists
Those who reacted most strongly against the foreigners because they feared that the newcomers would take their jobs and also weaken the culture of the Anglo majority. These were usually Protestants who distrusted the Roman Catholicism practiced by the Irish and many of the Germans
American party
Initially called the Supreme Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, this secret anti-foreign society opposed immigrants, which led to sporadic rioting in the big cities. This society eventually turned to politics in the early 1850s, nominating candidates for office as the Know-Nothing Party
King Cotton
Southern saying that referenced the success brought by cotton because cotton was the South's greatest asset
Eli Whitney
Developed the cotton gin, which helped make cotton affordable, not just in Europe and the United States, but throughout the world
peculiar institution
White Southerns used this expression to describe slavery because they were sensitive to the fact that slaves were human beings
Denmark Vesey
Led a major slave uprising in 1822
Nat Turner
Led a major slave uprising in 1831
slave codes
Stricter implementation of these due to of slave revolts and resistance
free African Americans
By 1860, accounted for as many as 250,000 African Americans in the South. A number of these had been emancipated during the American Revolution. Some were liberated by their white fathers. Others achieved freedom on their own. Many lived in the South, and some lived in cities where they could own property
planters
These people were at the top of the social pyramid in Southern society. To be a member of the South's small elite, a person usually had to own at least 100 slaves and mfarm at least 1,000 acres. This aristocracy maintained its power politically by dominating the state legislatures of the South and enacting laws that favored the large landholders' economic interests
poor whites
Three-fourths of the South's white population owned no slaves. They couldn't afford the rich-river bottom farmland controlled by the planters, and many lived in the hills as subsistence farmers. They also defended the slave system, thinking that some day that too could own slaves and that at least they were superior on the social scale to someone (slaves)
mountain men
A number of small farmers who lived in frontier conditions in isolation from the rest of the South, along the slopes and valleys of the Appalachian and Ozark mountains. These people disliked the planters and their slaves. During the Civil War, many would remain loyal to the Union. These people would also serve as the guides and pathfinders for settlers crossing the mountains into California and Oregon in the 1840s
the West
The region of the United States, whose definition kept changing from one era to another, as the United States expanded westward. In the 1600s, this referred to the lands not along the Atlantic Coast. In the 1700s, this meant lands on the other side of the Appalachian Mountains. By the mid-1800s, this lay beyond the Mississippi River and reached as far as California and the Oregon Territory on the Pacific Coast
the frontier
Concept that remained the same throughout generations. The West represented the possibility of a fresh start and new opportunities for those willing to venture there. If not in fact, at least in theory and myth, the West beckoned as a place promising greater freedom for all ethnic groups
Native American removal
This was always present since the time of Columbus. Native Americans did not move west voluntarily as pioneers. They were cajoled, pushed, or driven westward as white settlers encroached on their original homelands.
Great Plains
The area that would provide only a temporary respite from conflict from white settlers. Here, some Native Americans still lived in villages and grew crops as farmers
white settlers
These people who lived on the western frontier led a hard life. They worked hard from sunrise to sunset and lived in log cabins or other improvised shelters. More of them died at an early age from disease and malnutrition than from Indian attacks. The isolation, endless work, and rigors of childbirth also meant a limited lifespan for women on the frontier
environmental damage
European Americans had little understanding of the fragile nature of land and wildlife. As settlers moved into an area, they would clear entire forests and after only two generations exhaust the soil with poor farming methods. At the same time, trappers and hunters decimated the beaver and the buffalo to the brink of extinction
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