36 terms

Anatomy - Urinary Tract

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What is the function of the kidneys?
1. excrete waste products of metabolism.
2. water and electrolyte balance within the body
3. acid-base balance of blood.
What does Perirenal fat cover?
the fibrous capsule
What lies outside the perirenal fat and encloses the kidneys and suprarenal glands?
Renal fascia
Where do the renal pyramids lie?
inner medulla (light brown)
Trace the arterial supply from the aorta the the renal pyramids:
Aorta.
Renal artery (divides into five segmental arteries that enter the hilum of the kidney).
Segmental artery (divides into lobar arteries).
Lobar arteries (one for each renal pyramid).
Interlobar
Arcuate
What is the role of perirenal fat, renal fascia, and pararenal fat?
support the kidneys and hold them in position on the posterior abdominal wall
Where does the renal vein emerge and drain?
emerges: hilum in front of renal artery
drains: inferior vena cava.
What is the renal nerve supply?
the renal sympathetic plexus (10th, 11th, and 12th T nerves).
What arteries/veins supply the upper, middle, and pelvic portions of the ureter?
upper: renal artery/ vein
middle: testicular or ovarian artery/ vein
pelvis: superior vesical artery/ vein
Where does lymph from the ureter drain?
lateral aortic nodes and the iliac nodes.
What is the nerve supply of the Ureter?
renal, testicular (or ovarian), and hypogastric plexuses (L1, L2)
How is urine propelled though the Ureters?
Peristalsis.
And assisted by the filtration pressure of the glomeruli.
Where are the three constrictions of the Ureter?
1. renal pelvis joins the ureter
2. as it crosses the pelvic brim
3. pierces the bladder wall
Glucocorticoids control the metabolism of what 4 things?
Carbohydrates
Fats
Proteins
Sex hormones
What hormones do the suprarenal glands secrete?
Cortex: mineral corticoids (gluccocorticoids)
Medulla: catecholamines (epi and norepinephrine)
What are 6 common congenital kidney anomalies?
1. Pelvic kidney
2. Aberrant renal arteries
3. Rosette kidney
4. Horseshoe kidney
5. Unilateral double kidney
6. Aberrant renal artery causing urinary obstruction
What are 5 common congenital ureter anomalies?
1. Double pelvis
2. Bifid ureter
3. Ectopic ureteric orifice
4. Megaloureter
5. Postcaval ureter
What arteries supply the suprarenal glands?
inferior phrenic artery
Aorta
renal artery
Where do the veins of the suprarenal glands drain?
A single vein emerges from hilum
right - inferior vena cava
left - renal vein
The lymph from the Kidneys, Suprarenal glands and ureter drain into what node?
lateral aortic nodes
What is the nerve supply to the suprarenal glands?
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers derived from the splanchnic nerves.
What are the branches of the abdominal aorta (10)?
1. Celiac
2. Superior mesenteric
3. Inferior mesenteric
4. Supra renal
5. Renal
6. Testicular
7. Inferior phrenic
8. 4 lumbar
9. Common iliac
10. Median Sacral
What are the 3 anterior visceral branches of the abdominal aorta?
1. Celiac
2. Superior mesenteric
3. Inferior mesenteric
What are the 3 lateral visceral branches of the abdominal aorta?
1. Supra renal
2. Renal
3. Testicular
What are the 5 lateral abdominal wall branches of the abdominal aorta?
1. Inferior phrenic
2. Lumbar (4)
What are the 3 terminal branches of the abdominal aorta?
1. Common iliac (External and Internal)
2. Median Sacral
What are the branches of the Celiac artery (3)?
1. Left Gastric
2. Splenic
3. Hepatic
What are the branches of the Superior mesenteric Artery (5)?
1. Jejunal and Ileal
2. Inferior pancreaticoduodenal
3. Middle colic
4. Right Colic
5. Ileocolic
What are the branches of the Inferior mesenteric Artery (3)?
1. Left Colic
2. Sigmoid
3. Superior rectal
What are the branches of the Heptic Artery (5)?
1. Cystic
2. Right Gastric
3. Gastroduodenal
4. Right Hepatic
5. Left Hepatic
What are the branches of the Splenic Artery (3)?
1. Short Gastric
2. Splenic arteries (6)
3. Left gastroepiploic artery
What are the branches of the Iliocolic Artery (4)?
1. Anterior cecal
2. Posterior cecal
3. Ileal
4. Colic
What are the main tributaries of the Inferior Vena Cava?
1. Hepatic
2. Right Suprarenal
3. Renal
4. Right testicular
5. Inferior phrenic
6. Lumbar (4)
7. Common Iliac
8. Median Sacral
What are the two anterior visceral tributaries of the IVC?
The hepatic veins
What are the three lateral visceral tributaries of the IVC?
1. Right Suprarenal vein
(left drains into left renal vein)
2. Renal Veins
3. Right testicular/ovarian
(Left drains into the left renal vein)
What are the branches of the Lumbar Plexus?
Table 5.1 pg. 223 of Snell (good luck)