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language for mr. rodriguez


means of communicating by use of signs, gestures, marks, and vocalization


local or regional characteristics of a language

language family

languages thought to have a shared but fairly distant origin

language subfamily

thought to have a more definite commanality, divisions of familes

language group

sets of individual languages; divisions of subfamilies


a geo. boundary within which a particular linguist feature occurs

preliterate society

society that speaks, but doesnt read or write

standard language

variant of language which intellectuals and gov. use

indo european languages

language family spoken by 1/2 the worlds people

language convergence

long isolated languages coming together

language divergence

languages breaking apart

language replacement

replacing smaller language with bigger one

sound shifts

the way a word that means the same thing changes in different areas

deep reconstruction

finding vocab of a lost language and trying to rebuild it

proto indo european

language which came before Latin, greek, sanscript


pre proto indo european language

na dene

second oldest, second largest indigenous family of language


oldest, largest indigenous family language

eskimo aleut

youngest, smallest indigenous family language in Greenberg hypothesis

agricultural theory

language spread when agriculture spread

conquest theory

theory that language spread by conquest


the study of place names

official language

language selected to promote internal cohesiveness in a state

monolingual states

countries in which only one language is spoken

multilingual states

countries in which more than one language is spoken

lingual franca

common language spoken by groups of different languages to communicate


lingua franca that is beginning to develop its own words


language that began as pidgin and became its own


languuage that was an attempt to create global language


the belief that members of one race are superior to members of other races


a group of people within society that is distinguished by other and by itself,on the basis of race and cultural characteristics.

plural society

a society in which different cultural groups keep their own identity and beliefs and traditions

ethnic islands

a small ethnic area in the rural countryside

cultural linkage

a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity

cultural revival

The regeneration of a long dormant culture through internal renewal and external infusion.

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