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75 terms

Kevin: Gilded Age Terms (apstudent)

Gilded Age Terms by Kevin :]
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Brooklyn Bridge
One of the great tech achievements; designed by John Roebling.
Tammany Hall
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
William M. Tweed
The NY political boss using political machines; "boss" Tweed of Tammany Hall in NY
Thomas Nast
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Banned Chinese immigration for ten years and barred them from becoming naturalized citizens.
Joseph Pulitzer
Launched yellow journalism through World.
William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
Ashcan School
Also known as The Eight, a group of American Naturalist painters formed in 1907, most of whom had formerly been newspaper illustrators, they beleived in portraying scenes from everyday life in starkly realistic detail. Their 1908 display was the first art show in the U.S.
Louis Sullivan
Known as the father of the skyscraper because he designed the first steel-skeleton skyscraper. Mentor of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Frederick Law Olmstead
Designed Central Park in 1850s
Henry Bessemer
Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.
Thomas Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
Andrew Carnegie
Business tycoons, they made their money in the steel industry. Philanthropists.
Henry Ford
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.
James J. Hill
Empire builder, he tried to monopolize the northern railroads.
Cornelius Vanderbilt
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad.
John D. Rockefeller
Joined his brother William in the formation of the Standard Oil Company in 1870 and became very wealthy.
J.P. Morgan
Financier who arranged the merger which created the U.S. Steel Corporation, the world's first billion dollar corporation. Everyone involved in the merger became rich. (Vertical consolidation).
Social Darwinism
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor.
Vertical integration
One company buys out all the factors of production, from raw materials to finished product. Ex. Slaughterhouse
Horizontal integration
several smaller companies within the same industry are combined to form one. Ex. John D. Rockefeller
William Graham Sumner
Yale professor; protected Social Darwinism
Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie was an American millionaire and philanthropist who donated large sums of money for public works. His book argued that the wealthy have an obligation to give something back to society.
Russell Conwell
"Acres of Diamonds"; Baptist preacher whose famous speech said that hard work and thrift would lead to success.
"Acres of Diamond"
Notion that great wealth is available to all; work hard.
Horatio Alger
Wrote Ragged DICk, Tom the Bootlack, and Sink or Swim.
Ragged Dick
story about a poor bootblack and his rise to middle-class comfort and respectability through good moral behavior, clean living, and determination.
Lester Frank Ward
Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.
Henry George
Progress and Poverty; Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress.
Edward Bellamy
Looking Backwards; 1888 - Utopian novel which predicted the U.S. woudl become a socialist state in which the government would own and oversee the means of production and would unite all people under moral laws.
Gilded Age
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Molly McGuires
militant labor force who battled with coal operator; hysteria of Railroad Strike of 1877
National Labor union
Established 1866, and headed by William Sylvis and Richard Trevellick, it concentrated on producer cooperation to achieve goals.
Knights of Labor
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
American Federation of Labor
Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members; by 1917 it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of different unions. Labor union led by Samuel Gomper; only took skilled workers; no women or black; used "bread and butter"
Terrance Powderly
An American labor union originally established as a secret fraternal order and noted as the first union of all workers. It was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens and a number of fellow workers. Powderly was elected head of the Knights of Labor in 1883.
Samuel Gompers
President of the AFL, he combined unions to increase their strength.
Bread and butter unionism
Asked for pragmatic reforms such as higher wages and shorter work days: ultimately successful.
Injunction
A judicial order forcing a person or group to refrain from doing something.
Haymarket Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
Homestead Strike
The workers at a steel plant in Pennsylvania went on strike, forcing the owner to close down. Armed guards were hired to protect the building. The strikers attacked for five months, then gave in to peace demands..
Pullman Strike
Started by enraged workers who were part of George Pullman's "model town", it began when Pullman fired three workers on a committee. Pullman refused to negotiate and troops were brought in to ensure that trains would continue to run. When orders for Pullman cars slacked off, Pullman cut wages, but did not cut rents or store prices.
IWW
The International Workers of the World (Wobblies) were a militant, radical union. They favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. They were disliked by big business and less radical unions.
Big Bill Haywood
a leader of the Western Federation of Miners; IWW members convicted of violating the Espionage Act of 1917
John P. Altgeld
Governor of Illinois during the Haymarket riots, he pardoned three convicted bombers in 1893, believing them victims of the "malicious ferocity" of the courts.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Stalwarts
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
Half-Breeds
Favored tariff reform and social reform, major issues from the Democratic and Republican parties. They did not seem to be dedicated members of either party.
Mugwumps
Republicans who changed their vote during the 1884 election from Blaine to Cleveland. Mugwump is the Algonquin Indian word for "chief" and was used in a N.Y. Sun editorial to criticize the arrogance of the renegade Republicans.
James G. Blaine
U.S. Senator from Maine and champion of the Half-Breeds.
Roscoe Conkling
A Stalwart leader and part of the political machine.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
Chester A. Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
James A Garfield
the 20th President of the US; he died two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration.
Grover Cleveland
both the 22nd and 24th President of the US. As a leader of the Bourbon Democrats, he opposed imperialism, taxes, subsidies and inflationary policies, but as a reformer he also worked against corruption, patronage, and bossism.
Benjamin Harrison
Republican, ran against Cleveland, became the 23rd president.
McKinley Tariff
A highly protective tariff passed in 1880. So high it caused a popular backlash which cost the Republicans votes.
Wilson-Gorman tariff
tariff reduction proposed by Cleveland.
Interstate Commerce Act
A five member board that monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states.
Bland-Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month. It had been passed in response to the growing complaints of farmers and mining interests.
Pendleton Act
1883 - The first federal regulatory commission. Office holders would be assessed on a merit basis to be sure they were fit for duty. Brought about by the assassination of Garfield by an immigrant who was angry about being unable to get a government job. The assassination raised questions about how people should be chosen for civil service jobs.
Granger Laws
Laws made by Grangers to regulate the railroad price rate.
The Grange
The group of farmers who tried to allow farmers to buy machinery and sell crops as a group; try to lower the railroad price rate; endorsed political movement.
Crime of '73
Referred to the coinage law of 1873 which eliminated silver money from circulation. Name given by people who opposed paper money.
Sherman Antitrust Act
1890 - A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Farmers' Alliances
Replacement for "new" Granges; more successful
Populist party
Offically named the People's Party, but commonly known as the Populist Party, it was founded in 1891 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Wrote a platform for the 1892 election (running for president-James Weaver, vice president-James Field) in which they called for free coinage of silver and paper money; national income tax; direct election of senators; regulation of railroads; and other government reforms to help farmers. The part was split between South and West.
William Jennings Bryan
Member of the Populists, he supported "free silver" and gave "Cross of Gold" speech.
James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
William McKinley
the 25th Republican President of the US leader; his McKinley Tariff of 1890;he upheld the gold standard, and promoted pluralism among ethnic groups. he fought the Spanish-American War and annexed the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam, as well as Hawaii, and set up a protectorate over Cuba.
Dingley Tariff
Passed in 1897, the highest protective tariff in U.S. history with an average duty of 57%. It replaced the Wilson - Gorman Tariff, and was replaced by the Payne - Aldrich Tariff in 1909. It was pushed through by big Northern industries and businesses.
Gold Standard Act 1900
This was signed by McKinley. It stated that all paper money would be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold gold in reserve in case people decided they wanted to trade in their money. Eliminated silver coins, but allowed paper Silver Certificates issued under the Bland-Allison Act to continue to circulate.
Settlement house movement
Made community centers, providing schools, child care, and cultural activities.
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.