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APUSH American Pageant Chapters 12-13
Terms in this set (68)
War of 1812
War fought between Britain and the U.S. largely over the issue of trade and impressment. The war ended in a relative draw, but it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interests militarily.
The USS Constitution, had thicker sides, heavier firepower and a larger crew.
Battle of the Thames
(1813) Redcoats were forced to withdraw from Detroit and Fort Malden that General Harrison's army took.
Battle of Lake Erie
American victory over Britain at Lake Erie led by Oliver Hazard Perry.
Battle of Lake Champlain
American fleet commanded by Thomas Macdonough forced the invading British army to retreat.
Francis Scott Key
Guy who wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" during the battle of Baltimore.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Battle led by Andrew Jackson in which the American army crushed the southwest Indians.
Battle of New Orleans
Victory of American Forces against the British at New Orleans, final battle of the War of 1812, restored American confidence.
Congress of Vienna
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
Treaty of Ghent
(1815) Treaty that ended the war of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war.
Convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of southern and western interests in congress and in the white house. Seen as treasonous, fall of the Federalists.
(1817) Agreement signed by Britain and the United States, it established strict limits on naval armaments in the great lakes; a first step in the dull demilitarization of the US.
An idea that was associated with the discredited New England federalists.
Tariff of 1816
First protective tariff in American history, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods.
Henry Clay's three-pronged system to promote American industry. He advocated a strong a banking system, a protective tariff and a federally funded transportation network.
Congressman, created the plan for the American System
Republican, nominated for presidency in 1816, continued the Virginia dynasty and ushered in the Era of Good Feelings.
Era of Good Feelings
(1816-1824) Popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during Monroe's presidency. The term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery and the national bank.
Panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. Its disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the west.
Began in 1811, ran from western Maryland to Illinois.
Land Act of 1820
Fueled the settlement of the northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land, also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, eliminating one of the causes of the Panic of 1819.
(1819) Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners strongly opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between the north and south.
Term for the institution of slavery in the south. Its use in the fist half of the 19th century reflected a growing division between the north and the south.
(1820) Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between north and south by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachussetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana purchase, north of 36'30.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) Supreme court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the bank of the U.S. by establishing that the state of Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank.
Legal doctrine which holds that the federal government can use powers not specifically granted or prohibited in the constitution to carry out its constitutionally mandated responsibilities.
Cohens v. Virginia
(1821 under John Marshall) Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the supreme court to review decisions of the state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
(1824 under John Marshall) Suit over whether New York could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters. The ruling reasserted that congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce.
Fletcher v. Peck
(1810 under John Marshall) Established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the supreme court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the constitution.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819 under John Marshall) Supreme court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state government.
(1818) Signed by Britain and the United States, the pact allowed New England fisherman access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon country for 10 years.
Florida Purchase Treaty
(1819) Under this agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange abandoned its claims to Texas. (Adams-Onis Treaty)
British Foreign Secretary, feared the U.S. would try to take Cuba which would jeopardize Britain's possessions in the Caribbean.
(1823) Statement delivered by President Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas. The U.S. largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who wanted unfettered access to Latin American markets.
(1824) Fixed the line of 54'40 as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America.
(1824)Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election in Adams' favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered the popular vote.
John Quincy Adams
The "minority president", refused to fire efficient officeholders in order to create places for his supporters, nationalists, urged congress to support the construction of roads and canals and a national university.
A judge and a member of congress, violent temper, first president from the west, "risen from the masses"
Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first widely employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson. Widely abused by office-seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging 2 party system.
Tariff of Abominations
(1828) Tariff noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the tariff, arguing that it hurt southern farmers, who did not benefit from protective tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactured goods.
"The South Carolina Exposition"
Pamphlet produced by South Carolinians and written by John Calhoun, denounced the tariff as unjust and unconstitutional.
Political Theorists and vice president, wrote "The South Carolina Exposition" and advocated for a dual presidency.
Showdown between president Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved in a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
Passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis, it provided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years, to 1816 levels.
Passed by congress alongside the compromise tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties.
"Five Civilized Tribes"
Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws and Seminoles
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
in 1828 the Georgia Legislature declared the Cherokee council illegal and asserted its own jurisdiction over Indian affairs and lands, the Cherokees appealed this move to the supreme court, which upheld the rights of the Indians.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) Ordered the removal of all Indian tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged military or legal battles.
Trail of Tears
(1838-1839) Forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian territory , some 4,000 Native Americans died on the journey.
Black Hawk War
(1832) Series of clashes in Illinois and Wisconsin between American forces and Indian chief Black Hawk of the Sauk and Fox tribes, who unsuccessfully tried to reclaim territory lost under the 1830 Indian Removal Act.
President of the Bank of the United States, held and immense amount of power in the nation's financial affairs.
(1832) Battle between President Jackson and congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal. Jackson vetoed the bank bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers.
(Est. 1826) Party that campaigned against the politically influential masonic order, a secret society. Anti-masons opposed Andrew Jackson, a mason, and drew support from Evangelical protestants.
Popular term for Pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Jackson moved to dismantle the banks of the Unite States in 1833.
(1836) U.S. Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchases with "hard" or metallic currency. Issues after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the west.
Progressive in their support of active government programs and reforms, called for internal improvements, welcomed the market economy, claimed to be defenders of the common man.
Eighth president, chosen by Jackson in 1836, following Jackson he was left with Jackson's economic crisis which he was left to battle, but couldn't solve the problem; strongly disliked.
Panic of 1837
Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices and Jackson's efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the west.
Separated the government from banking all together by establishing an independent treasury.
Fortress in Texas where 400 American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna in 1836. "Remember the Alamo" became a battle cry in support of Texan independence.
Texas outpost where American volunteers, having laid down their arms and surrendered, were massacred by Mexican forces in 1836, fueled American support for Texan independence.
Battle of San Jacinto
Battle that resulted in the capture of Mexican dictator, Santa Anna, who was forced to withdraw his troops from Texas and recognize the Rio Grande as Texas's southwestern border.
Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign
Campaign adopted by the Whigs for William Henry Harrison. Claimed Harrison was a "poor farmer of north bend" and denounced VanBuren as a supercilious aristocrat.
Party that supported states' rights and federal restraint in social and economic affairs.
Peggy Eaton Affair
Scandal that contributed to the bitter, personal political conflict between Jackson and Calhoun.
The expansion of access to government. A movement from white property owners voting to all white males being allowed to vote. It also includes the development of party conventions. Jackson benefited from it, but did not create it.
All-purpose unofficial advisers to the president.
Secretary of Treasury under Jackson, fired because he refused to help Jackson financially destroy the Bank of the United States.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH American Pageant Chapters 9-11
APUSH American Pageant Chapters 6-8
APUSH American Pageant Chapters 22-23
APUSH American Pageant Chapters 1-5
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