2) People who have a genetic predisposition to CAD will have a higher risk, as well as people who are older than 40 years of age, men, postmenopausal women, and Caucasians. Also, those who smoke, reside in an urban society, have hypertension, diabetes, or obesity, high cholesterol, don't exercise, or stressed are at risk of the disease. Severe pain in the location of the emboli. Pale, numb, and cold to the touch. Large artery: nausea, comiting, fainting, and eventually shock. Caused by blood clots, usually, but can be air bubbles, fat globules, bacterial clumps, or pieces of tissue.
Cx pix, hx of bed rest, physical inactivity, HF, arrhythmias, and any condition that has put pressure on or decreased flow in the veins of the legs or pelvis alert the physician to the possibility of an embolus.
Tx depends on area of involvement. Aggressive, immediate. Lowering limb, wrapping to maintain warmth, tx of any constriction of BV. Heparin or enoxaparin, antispasmodic drugs, Sx intervention, thrombolytic drug
often asymptomatic. angina pectoris, dizziness, elevated blood pressure, and shortness of breath. Causes: multifactorial, complicated. Hereditary, sedentary lifestyle, diet rich in lipids and cholesterol producing foods, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, HTN, obesity. TX: dietary changes, smoking cessation, HTN, DM controlled, hyperlipidemic drugs Sx - interference with the blood flow, and resulting edema. Pain, swelling, heaviness, warmth, along with chills and fever.
Causes - venous stasis, blood disorders, injury to venous wall. DV inflammation affects tunica intima, allowing formation of clots.
Tx - Immediate intervention is needed, affeted part is immobilized, Heparin is administered, antibiotics are given to prevent infection.
Sx - related to increased RBC mass and include headaches, dyspnea, irritability, mental sluggishness, dizziness, syncope, night sweats, and weight loss. Circulatory strangulation, thrombus, and increased blood viscosity may be noted. Splenomegaly and clubbing or fingers may be noted.
Causes - When plasma volume is reduced by dehydration, plasma loss, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, or burns. Reduced oxygen supply to the tissues results in a compensation by the body as it manufactures additional hemoglobin to carry additional oxygen.
Tx - periodic phlebotomy is employed to reduce blood volume. Myelosuppressive drugs and radiation. Relative polycythemia usually subsides when the causitive factors are eliminated.
SX- sudden, severe, substernal or leftsided chest pain may radiate to left/right arm, back, or jaw. irreg. hb, dyspnea/diaphoresis. Burning, radiating, squeezing, crushing.
DX - ECG, chest radiographic studies, cardiac enzyme levels.
TX - O2, morphine, aspirin, nitroglycerin, thrombolytic drugs, enzymes, nitrogen drips
SX - dyspnea, edema, liver/spleen enlargement, enlarge neck veins, cardiac and respiratory rates increase.
DX - Hx, PE. Breath sounds diminished, radiographic films indicate fluid in lungs. ECG to evaluate cardiac chamber size, ventricular function, and disease of the myocardium, valves, cardiac structures, and the pericardium.Catheterization to monitor pressures in circulation.
TX - Digitalis, BB, ACE inhibitors, diuretics, vasodilators.
SX - sore throat, fever, polyarthritis, joint pain, edema, redness, limited ROM, carditis, heart murmers, cardiomegaly, CHF, weakness.
DX - Hx of URTI in preceding weeks. No single diagnostic feature. Presence of carditis and polyarthritis adds to evidence. Elevated streptococcal antibody level (antistreptolysin O titer). Increases of CEL, WBC count, nd ESR aid in dx.
TX - complete course of antibiotics, antipyretics, antiinflammatory agents, bed rest
SX - hemorrhage, pale, cold, clammy skin, tachypnea, altered consciousness, low BP
DX - Clinical picture, altered level of consciousness
TX - Open airway, elevate feet, control bleeding if necessary, keep warm.
Fatigue, pale appearance, dyspnea, headache, loss of appetite, heartburn, edema, numbness, syncope, pallor.
DX - reduced RBC #, reduced hemoglobin levels, changes in morphology of corpuscles.
TX - dietary or supplementary iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 injections, rest, fluid intake increased, analgesics.