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Praxis II (0041/0049) Language and Linguistics: Grammar: Sentences

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sentence
expresses a complete thought; example: My father travels around the country.
in
already inside
into
tell about the movement from the outside to the inside
between
for two
among
three or more
different from
to tell about differences
of
do not use in the place of "have"
declarative
sentence that makes a statement; uses a period; example: Janelle is painting a picture of an imaginary place.
interrogative
sentence that asks a questions; uses a ? mark; example: Who could ever create a more imaginative scene?
imperative
sentence gives a command; uses a period; example: Think about all the uses for artwork.
exclamatory
sentence expresses strong feeling; uses an ! point; example: Who could ever create a more imaginative scene!
four kinds of sentences
declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory
Include a ____ and a predicate in every sentence.
subject
Use a ____ and a subject in every sentence.
predicate
subject
whom or what the sentence is about; example: One PERSON described her experience.
predicate
tells something about the subject; example: One person DESCRIBED HER EXPERIENCE.
complete subject
all the words in a subject; example: MY TWO OLDER BROTHERS stared at me silently.
simple subject
is the main word or words in a subject; example: My two older BROTHERS stared at me silently.
Sometimes the complete ____ and simple ____ are the same; example: XAVIER stared at me silently.
subject
complete predicate
all the words in a predicate; example: Everyone in my house IS KEEPING A SECRET.
simple predicate
is the main word or words in a predicate; example: Everyone in my house IS KEEPING a secret.
Sometimes the complete ____ and simple ___ are the same; example: Everyone SMILES.
predicate
compound subject
two or more simple subjects with the same predicate; example: JON congratulated the actress. STACY congratulated the actress. --> JON and STACY congratulated the actress.
compound predicate
two or more predicates with the same subject; usually joined by AND or OR; example: We WILL FIND the card catelog or WILL ASK the librarian for help.
compound sentence
combines two or more simple sentences; can be joined by a comma and connecting words such as AND, OR, or BUT...or by a semi-colon; example: A crater can be formed by a bomb, or it can be formed by meteorite.
conjunction
joins a words or groups of words; can be AND, OR, or BUT; can be used to combine sentences; example: Janet lives in Austen, AND Elizabeth lives in New York.
interjection
a word or a group of words that expresses strong feeling; you can separate an interjection from the rest of a sentence with either an exclamation point or a comma, depending on the strength of the feeling; examples: Whew! That was close! Oh, no!
fragment
does not express a complete thought; example: Tells an interesting story.
run-on sentence
strings together two or more sentences without clearly separating them; example: This picture is his it is not yours.
expanded
adding details to sentences to make them more clear and more interesting
phrase
a group of words that work together; example: from the kitchen window
clause
a group of words that have a subject and a predicate; some stand alone; others cannot; example: Everyone should know about medical emergencies.
independent clause
expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a simple sentence
dependent clause
contains a subject and a predicate, but doesn't express a complete thought or stand alone; example: AFTER THEY LEARNED ABOUT TOXIC WASTE.
complex sentence
consist of one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
subordinating conjuction
AFTER, IF, SINCE, UNTIL, WHETHER, or WHEN connects the two clauses into one sentence; example: The senators left the capitol AFTER THE SESSION WAS ADJOURNED.
indirect object
is a noun or a pronoun that follows an action verb; example: The vet sent ME a reminder to bring my dogs in for their shots.
appositive
a noun that identifies or explains the noun or pronoun it follows; usually set off by commas; example: Robert Miller, the JUDGE, sentenced the criminal to prison.
predicate nominative
noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject; example: Susan B. Anthony was an early FEMINIST. (noun) / It was SHE who led the woman's suffrage movement to victory. (pronoun)
compound predicate nominative
Predicate nominatives sometimes contain more than one noun. These are called ____. example: Mahatma Ghandi was a Hindu religious LEADER and a social REFORMER in India.
predicate adjective
an adjective that follows a linking verb and modifies the subject of a sentence; example: A freshly baked pie is DELIGHTFUL to the eye and nose.
compound predicate adjective
Predicate adjectives sometimes contain more than one adjective. These are called ____. example: The job applicant seems HONEST and RELIABLE.
direct object
a noun or pronoun that follows an action verb; they tell or what receives the action; example: I inherited a pet DEER from the former residents of my house. (tells what) or The surgical team asked DR. HABIB to explain the procedure. (tells who)
noun clause
subordinate clause used as a noun; examples: WHAT YOU SAY is true.
participle
used as an adjective; it is a form of a verb used as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun; example: The RUNNING water was moving dangerously fast.
participial phrase
contains a participle and acts as an adjective; examples: They arrested the man DRIVING THE CAR.
gerund
verb + ing used as a noun; example: SWIMMING is a good exercise.
gerund phrase
consist of a gerund and related words; example: SWIMMING IN THE LAKE is a good exercise.
infinitive
present tense of a verb preceded by the word TO; it may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb; example: TO EXERCISE is a healthful habit.
dangling participle
To correct a ____, place the participial closer to the word it modifies; example: (incorrect: PLAYING SOLITAIRE, at the table sat a bored young man. / correct: At the table sat a bored young man PLAYING SOLITAIRE.)
split infinitive
use an adverb to avoid these; example: (incorrect: I wanted to SLOWLY SEE the city. / correct: I wanted TO SEE the city SLOWLY.)
modifier
Place a ___ as close to the word it describes; example: (incorrect: The man looks like a spy WITH THE HAT. / correct: The man WITH THE HAT looks like a spy.)
subordinate clause
contains a subject and a predicate, but does not express a complete thought, and cannot stand alone; often begins with a subordinating conjunction, such as AFTER, ALTHOUGH, BECAUSE, BEFORE, IF, SINCE, WHEN, or WHILE; example: People became more sensitive to pollution problems AFTER THEY LEARNED ABOUT TOXIC WASTE.
adjective clause
modifies a noun or a pronoun; majority of these clauses are introduced by relative pronouns such as WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHICH, and THAT; example: She lost the ring THAT YOU GAVE HER.
nonrestrictive clause
is descriptive or explanatory and can be omitted without changing the essential meaning; example: My father, WHO WAS COACHING THE BASEBALL TEAM, met us at the ballpark.
adverb clause
is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb