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Terms in this set (30)
Who is Luther Burbank?
An american botanist who may have been the greatest selective breeder of all time; tried to cross plants with the traits of disease resistant and food-producing
How do breeders increase the genetic variation?
by inducing mutations
Two methods of increasing the rate of mutation.
What technique do scientists use to produce mutant plants?
The use of drugs that prevent chromosomal separation
What is a polyploidy?
polyploid plants have many sets of chromosomes, usually fatal in animals, bananas and some citrus fruits are polyploid
What are the four steps that molecular biologists use to study ad change DNA molecules
1) extract DNA
2) cut DNA
3) identify the sequence bases in DNA
4) make unlimited copies of DNA
How do biologists get DNA out of the cell?
The cells are opened and the DNA is separated from other cell parts
What is gel electrophoresis?
an electric voltage applied to the gel separates the DNA fragments, is used to compare the genomes of different organisms, and can be used to located and identify one particular gene in an individuals genome
DNA sequencing enables researches to...
study specific genes, compare genes, and discover new functions of genes
What are the four "ingredients" added to a test tube to produce tagged DNA fragments that can be used to read a sequence of DNA
1) single strand of DNA with unknown sequence of bases
2) DNA polymerase
3) four nucleotide bases
4) small number of bases with chemical dye attached
Enzymes that splice DNA together can also be used to....?
Join synthetic DNA sequences to natural DNA sequences
What occurs during transformation?
DNA fragments become part of a cell's DNA
What are the steps in transforming bacteria?
1) Foreign DNA is joined to a plasmid
2) Recombinant plasmids are mixed with bacterial cells
4) the culture is treated with an antibiotic, a compound that kills bacteria
3) Only cells that have been transformed survive, because only they carry a gene for antibiotic resistance
Why is plasmid useful for DNA transfer?
1) DNA sequence helps promote plasmid replication
2) has a genetic marker
what occurs in a successful transformation of cells?
The recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell
How can animal cells be transformed by directly injecting DNA?
Once inside the nucleus, DNA repair enzymes help to insert the foreign DNA into the chromosomes
What is karyotype?
a picture layout of the chromosomes in a cell. Arranged in pairs
How is Rh blood groups determined?
by a single gene
What makes an allele dominant, recessive, or codominant?
Depends on the nature of a gene's protein product and its role in the cell
What is a Barr body?
A dense region in the nucleus
What occurs during nondisjunction?
homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis.
How is Genetic testing performed?
1) labeled DNA probes can be used to detect specific sequences found in disease-causing alleles
2) use changes in restriction enzyme cutting sites to identify disease-causing alleles
3) Makes it possible to develop more effective therapy and treatment for individuals affected by genetic disease
What are the steps in DNA fingerprinting?
1) small sample of DNA is cut with an restriction enzyme
2) the fragments are separated by size using gel electrophorus
3) Fragments of highly variable regions are detected with a DNA probe, revealing a series of DNA bands of various sizes
What are the three major steps in the process of sequencing the human genome?
1) determine the sequence of bases in widely separated regions of DNA
2) regions used as markers
3) markers made it possible to locate and return to specific locations in the genome
What is an open reading frame, and what is it used for?
A sequence of DNA bases that produce an mRNA sequence, which then specifies a series of amino acids
What are three parts of the gene are researchers look for?
2) "start" site for transcription
3) "stop" site for transcription
What happens with gene therapy?
when the normal copy of the gene is inserted, the body can make the correct protein, which eliminates the disorder. viruses often carry the normal genes into cells
How are transgenic bacteria useful to humans?
provide insulin, growth hormones, and a clotting factor
What medical products may result from research into transgenic plants and animals?
Plants: may soon produce human antibodies that can be used to fight disease.
Animals: may provide us with an ample supply of our own proteins
In cystic fibrosis, how was a small change in the DNA of a single gene affect a protein?
The deletion of three bases removes just one amino acid from the large protein, causing it to fold improperly. This leads to the protein being destroyed.
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