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44 terms

Ancient India- Indus River Valley Civilization

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subcontinent
large, triangular landmass that juts into the Indian Ocean
monsoon
2 seasonal winds that shape the pattern of life:
winter-brings dry air from mts (northeast)
summer-brings wet rain, downpours from sea (southwest)
3 bodies of water surrounding India
Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal
Harrapa
major city located in Pakistan, what the Indus Valley settlements were named after ("the Harappan civilization"), ruins are great examples of urban planning
Mohenjo-Daro
important Harrapan city, near Arabian Sea, ruins are great examples of urban planning
citadel
fortress built on a brick platform over looked each city, serves as gov&religious center
Harrapan Civilization (life, language, religion)
most people were farmers, used pictograms, worshiped many gods
Aryans
Indo-European group who invaded the Indian subcontinent from the north around 1500 BCE and might have destroyed the Harrapans,
rajah
tribe's cheif of Aryans
Sanskrit
ancient India's spoken lang which had the same roots as English, Spanish, French, German
epic
long poems celebrating their heroes
Vedas
"Book of Knowledge" which formed the basis of Aryan religious practices
Varnas
system of 4 main social classes:
Brahmans-priests
Kshatriyas-warriors, rulers
Vaisyas-common people
Suaras-servants
Bottom: not part of classes~ Pariahs- untouchables or outcasts
jati
smaller Varna groups according to occupation
the Caste System
system that Europeans named where everyone had a rank, similar to Varnas
Pariahs
skinned animals and tanned their hides for leather, untouchables
dharma
duties the men of each varna had to do
India's two epics
Mahabharata and Ramayan were highly regarded in religion, collected writings by several authors
beg. of Hinduism
based on diff. beliefs and practices, many of which had roots from Vedas and India Epics
universal spirit
soul present within all living things- Buddhism
3 main Hindu gods
Brahma-creator
Vishnu-preserver
Siva-destroyer
reincarnation
rebirth of soul
karma
principle that determines the cycle of rebirth- Hinduism
ahimsa
practice of nonviolence towards all living things- hinduism
moksha
release from pain and suffering of rebirth after rebirth- Hindu.
Upanishads
last books of Vedas collected from 800 to 400 BCE and teach about a universal spirit present within all life, shown throughout personal journeys and philosophies- Buddhism
Jainism
religion founded by Mahavira that rejected sacrifices and rigid social divisions and placed a special emphasis on ahimsa
the Buddha
Siddhartha Guatama, the person who founded Buddhism, the enlighted one
Four Noble Truths
Buddha's religious philosophy was laid out here, book of religious laws
Eightfold Path
Buddha believed that if people followed this they would reach nirvana and gain freedom from cycle of rebirth
nirvana
state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth
stupa
large stone mounds put over the bones of Buddhist holy people
Chandargupta Maurya and Mauryan Empire
ruled from 321 BCE-301BCE, followed Jainism, rigid bureaucracy, spy network, farming, mines, weapons, physicians, gave up power to be monk
Asoka
Chandargupta Maurya's grandson who ruled from 274 to 232 BCE, renounced war, became Buddhist
Chandragupta I
built the Mauryan Empire, was NOT related to Chandragupta Maurya
Chandargupta II
leader of Gupta Empire who ruled from 375 to 415 CE, expanded empire greatly while increasing its status culturally, Hindu, he died and empire collapsed b/c he was one of the last descendants of Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
founded by Chandragupta which formed the Gupta Dynasty, base of this kingdom was Magadha (known as india's Golden Age)
arabic numerals
symbols for the #s 1-10 which came from the traders in Middle East
Sutras
early sacred writing- Buddhism
urban planning in Harrapan cities
oven-baked bricks, laid their cities out in a grid pattern, containing a sewer system
soap stone steals
harrapans used to identify merchandise
Asoka's public projects
free hospitals, veteranarians, fine roads, shade trees for travelers comfort, rest homes
items exported during Gupta Empire
gems, spices, cotton
3 rivers
Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra