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large, triangular landmass that juts into the Indian Ocean


2 seasonal winds that shape the pattern of life:
winter-brings dry air from mts (northeast)
summer-brings wet rain, downpours from sea (southwest)

3 bodies of water surrounding India

Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal


major city located in Pakistan, what the Indus Valley settlements were named after ("the Harappan civilization"), ruins are great examples of urban planning


important Harrapan city, near Arabian Sea, ruins are great examples of urban planning


fortress built on a brick platform over looked each city, serves as gov&religious center

Harrapan Civilization (life, language, religion)

most people were farmers, used pictograms, worshiped many gods


Indo-European group who invaded the Indian subcontinent from the north around 1500 BCE and might have destroyed the Harrapans,


tribe's cheif of Aryans


ancient India's spoken lang which had the same roots as English, Spanish, French, German


long poems celebrating their heroes


"Book of Knowledge" which formed the basis of Aryan religious practices


system of 4 main social classes:
Kshatriyas-warriors, rulers
Vaisyas-common people
Bottom: not part of classes~ Pariahs- untouchables or outcasts


smaller Varna groups according to occupation

the Caste System

system that Europeans named where everyone had a rank, similar to Varnas


skinned animals and tanned their hides for leather, untouchables


duties the men of each varna had to do

India's two epics

Mahabharata and Ramayan were highly regarded in religion, collected writings by several authors

beg. of Hinduism

based on diff. beliefs and practices, many of which had roots from Vedas and India Epics

universal spirit

soul present within all living things- Buddhism

3 main Hindu gods



rebirth of soul


principle that determines the cycle of rebirth- Hinduism


practice of nonviolence towards all living things- hinduism


release from pain and suffering of rebirth after rebirth- Hindu.


last books of Vedas collected from 800 to 400 BCE and teach about a universal spirit present within all life, shown throughout personal journeys and philosophies- Buddhism


religion founded by Mahavira that rejected sacrifices and rigid social divisions and placed a special emphasis on ahimsa

the Buddha

Siddhartha Guatama, the person who founded Buddhism, the enlighted one

Four Noble Truths

Buddha's religious philosophy was laid out here, book of religious laws

Eightfold Path

Buddha believed that if people followed this they would reach nirvana and gain freedom from cycle of rebirth


state of freedom from the cycle of rebirth


large stone mounds put over the bones of Buddhist holy people

Chandargupta Maurya and Mauryan Empire

ruled from 321 BCE-301BCE, followed Jainism, rigid bureaucracy, spy network, farming, mines, weapons, physicians, gave up power to be monk


Chandargupta Maurya's grandson who ruled from 274 to 232 BCE, renounced war, became Buddhist

Chandragupta I

built the Mauryan Empire, was NOT related to Chandragupta Maurya

Chandargupta II

leader of Gupta Empire who ruled from 375 to 415 CE, expanded empire greatly while increasing its status culturally, Hindu, he died and empire collapsed b/c he was one of the last descendants of Gupta Empire

Gupta Empire

founded by Chandragupta which formed the Gupta Dynasty, base of this kingdom was Magadha (known as india's Golden Age)

arabic numerals

symbols for the #s 1-10 which came from the traders in Middle East


early sacred writing- Buddhism

urban planning in Harrapan cities

oven-baked bricks, laid their cities out in a grid pattern, containing a sewer system

soap stone steals

harrapans used to identify merchandise

Asoka's public projects

free hospitals, veteranarians, fine roads, shade trees for travelers comfort, rest homes

items exported during Gupta Empire

gems, spices, cotton

3 rivers

Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra

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