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2 seasonal winds that shape the pattern of life:
winter-brings dry air from mts (northeast)
summer-brings wet rain, downpours from sea (southwest)
major city located in Pakistan, what the Indus Valley settlements were named after ("the Harappan civilization"), ruins are great examples of urban planning
Harrapan Civilization (life, language, religion)
most people were farmers, used pictograms, worshiped many gods
Indo-European group who invaded the Indian subcontinent from the north around 1500 BCE and might have destroyed the Harrapans,
system of 4 main social classes:
Bottom: not part of classes~ Pariahs- untouchables or outcasts
India's two epics
Mahabharata and Ramayan were highly regarded in religion, collected writings by several authors
beg. of Hinduism
based on diff. beliefs and practices, many of which had roots from Vedas and India Epics
last books of Vedas collected from 800 to 400 BCE and teach about a universal spirit present within all life, shown throughout personal journeys and philosophies- Buddhism
religion founded by Mahavira that rejected sacrifices and rigid social divisions and placed a special emphasis on ahimsa
Buddha believed that if people followed this they would reach nirvana and gain freedom from cycle of rebirth
Chandargupta Maurya and Mauryan Empire
ruled from 321 BCE-301BCE, followed Jainism, rigid bureaucracy, spy network, farming, mines, weapons, physicians, gave up power to be monk
leader of Gupta Empire who ruled from 375 to 415 CE, expanded empire greatly while increasing its status culturally, Hindu, he died and empire collapsed b/c he was one of the last descendants of Gupta Empire
founded by Chandragupta which formed the Gupta Dynasty, base of this kingdom was Magadha (known as india's Golden Age)
urban planning in Harrapan cities
oven-baked bricks, laid their cities out in a grid pattern, containing a sewer system
Asoka's public projects
free hospitals, veteranarians, fine roads, shade trees for travelers comfort, rest homes
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