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328 terms

English II Pre-AP Midterm Review

straight off of the review for Ms. Watson, including all greek vocab and other terms on the review
STUDY
PLAY
symbolism
A device in literature where an object represents an idea.
irony
a contrast between expectation and reality
metaphor
comparison not using like or as
hyperbole
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
synecdoche
using a part of something to represent the whole thing
apostrophe
a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction
imagery
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
allusion
a reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
tone
The attitude of the author toward the audience and characters
repetition
repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis
simile
a comparison using "like" or "as"
personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
foreshadowing
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot
innuendo
an indirect or subtle reference, especially one made maliciously or indicating criticism or disapproval; insinuation
epithet
a term used to point out a characteristic of a person (used quite a bit by Homer)
invocation to the muse
beginning of an epic; calling the gods
epic
An extended narrative poem in elevated or dignified language, celebrating the feats of a legendary or traditional hero.
hubris
Excessive pride or arrogance which causes the hero's transgression against the gods; usually the tragic flaw
in medias res
in the middle of things
catharsis
purgation of emotions of pity and fear, which leaves the viewer both relaxed and elated
tragic hero
a character, usually of high birth, neither totally good nor totally evil, whose downfall is brought about by some weakness in error or judgement
nemesis
fate that cannot be escaped
arete
pursuit of excellence and virtue; literally "that which is good"
hammartia
tragic flaw of the hero that often brings about their demise
anagnorisis
Recognition or discovery on the part of the hero; change from ignorance to knowledge
peripeteia
A sudden change of events or reversal of circumstances, turning point
choragos
leader of the chorus
chorus
the actors who sang the chorus and commented on the action of the play
paean
song or hymn of praise, joy, or triumph
dithyramb
a hymn performed by men wearing masks, usually in honor of Dionysus (the god of wine and fertility)
tragedy
an imitation of a serious action, which will arouse pity or fear of the viewer
deus ex machina
In literature, the use of an artificial device or gimmick to solve a problem. ("God the machine")
theatron
the first theaters, built on hillsides with a few wooden benches for the important spectators
orchestra
area paved with stone with the actors
thymele
an altar for Dionysus in the center of the orchestra
skene
rectangular building made of wood that provided changing rooms for the actors and prop storage
proskenion
permanent stone building with a facade that replaced the skene
parados
the entrance used by the Chorus
rhetorical appeals
pathos, ethos, logos
ethos
The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
logos
an appeal based on logic or reason
concession
an admission; a compromise; a yielding
counterargument
argument against an argument already made
syllogism
a three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal.")
anaphora
the repetition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences
alliteration
repetition of initial consonant sounds
refutation
an attack on an opposing view in order to weaken it, invalidate it, or make it less credible
double entendre
A word or phrase open to two interpretations, one of which is usually risqué or indecent.
pun
a play on words, often achieved through the use of words with similar sounds but different meanings
malapropism
the unintentional misuse of a word by confusion with one that sounds similar
motif
A recurring theme, subject or idea
draconian
Exceedingly harsh; very severe
intemperance
excessive indulgence of appetite or passion, esp. in regard to alcohol; lack of constraint
volatility
Inconstant; fickle
phobia
fear, dislike, aversion
acrophobia
fear of being at a great height
agoraphobia
fear of open spaces
Anglophobia
fear or dislike of England or the English
claustrophobia
fear of enclosed or narrow spaces
Germanophobia
dislike of Germany or the Germans
hydrophobia
rabies - fear of water
monophobia
fear of being alone
photophobia
morbid (abnormal) aversion to light
xenophobia
aversion to foreigners
phobe
one who fears or dislikes
phil(o)
loving, fond of
philanthropist
lover of humanity, person active in promoting human welfare
philanthropy
love of humanity, especially as shown in donations to charitable and socially useful causes
philately
collection and study of stamps
philharmonic
pertaining to a musical organization, such as a symphony orchestra (originally "loving music")
philhellenism
support of Greece or the Greeks
philogyny
love of women
philology
study (love) of language and literature
philosopher
lover of, or searcher for, wisdom or knowledge, person who regulates his or her life by the light of reason
phile
one who loves or supports
Anglophile
supporter of England or the English
bibliophile
lover of books
Francophile
supporter of France or the French
mis
hate
misandry
hatred of males
misanthrope
hater of humanity
misanthropy
hatred of humanity
misogamy
hatred of marriage
misogyny
hatred of women
misology
hatred of argument or discussion
misoneism
hatred of anything new
dys
bad, ill, difficult
dysentery
inflammation of the large intestine
dysfunction
abnormal functioning, as of an organ of the body
dyslexia
impairment of the ability to read
dyspepsia
difficult digestion, indigestion
eupepsia
good digestion
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
dysphasia
speech difficulty resulting from brain injury
dystrophy
faulty nutrition
eu
good, well, advantageous
eugenics
science dealing with improving the hereditary qualities of the human race
eulogize
write or speak in praise of someone
euphemism
substitution of a "good" expression for an unpleasant one
euphonious
pleasing in sound
cacophonous
harsh-sounding
euphoria
sense of well-being
euthanasia
illegal practice of painlessly putting to death a person suffering from an incurable, painfully distressing disease - literally "advantageous death"
euthenics
science dealing with improving the living conditions
macro
large, long
micro
small
macrocosm
great world, universe
microcosm
little world
macron
horizontal mark indicating that the vowel over which it is placed is long
macroscopic
large enough to be visible to the naked eye
microscopic
invisible to the naked eye
microbe
very minute organism, a microorganism
microbicide
agent that destroys microbes
microdont
having small teeth
microfilm
film of very small size
micrometer
instrument for measuring very short distances
microsecond
unit of time equal to one millionth of a second
microwave
very short electromagnetic wave
a/an
not, without
amoral
without sense of moral responsibility
amorphous
without (having no) definite form or shape
anemia
lack of a normal number of red blood cells
anesthesia
loss of feeling or sensation resulting from ether, chloroform, novocaine, etc.
anhydrous
destitute of (without) water
anomaly
deviation from the common rule
anonymous
nameless, of unknown or unnamed origin
anoxia
deprivation of (state of being without) oxygen
aseptic
free from disease-causing microorganisms
atheism
godlessness, denial of the existence of a supreme being
atrophy
lack of growth from disuse or want of nourishment
hypertrophy
enlargement of a body part, as from excessive use
atypical
unlike the typical
mono/mon
one, single, alone
poly
many
monarchy
rule by a single person
polyarchy
rule by many
monochromatic
of one color
polychromatic
showing a variety of colors
monogamy
marriage with one mate at a time
polygamy
marriage to several mates at the same time
monomorphic
having a single form
polymorphic
having various forms
monosyllabic
having one syllable
polysyllabic
having more than three syllables
monotheism
belief that there is one God
polytheism
belief that there is a plurality of gods
monocle
eyeglass for one eye
monogram
two or more letters interwoven to represent a name
monograph
written account of a single thing or class of things
monolith
single stone of a large size
monologue
long speech by one person in a group
monomania
derangement of mind on one subject only
monotonous
continuing in an unchanging tone, wearying
polyglot
speaking in several languages/person who speaks several languages
polygon
closed plane figure having, literally, "many angles" and therefore many sides
polyphonic
having many sounds or voices
homophonic
having the same sound
polytechnic
dealing with many arts or sciences
logy
science, study, account
bio
life
tomy (tom)
cutting, operation of incision
pod
foot
homo
one and the same, like
hetero
different
hyper
over, above, beyond the ordinary
hypo
under, beneath, less than the ordinary
anthropology
science dealing with the origin, races, customs, and beliefs of humankind
bacteriology
science dealing with the study of bacteria
biology
the science that studies living organisms
cardiology
science dealing with the action and diseases of the heart
criminology
scientific study of crimes and criminals
dermatology
science dealing with the skin and its diseases
ecology
science dealing with the relation of living things to their environment and to each other
ethnology
science dealing with human races, their origin, distribution, culture, etc.
genealogy
account of the descent of a person or family from an ancestor
geology
science dealing with the earth's history as recorded in rocks
meteorology
science dealing with the atmosphere and weather
morphology
scientific study of the forms and structures of plants and animals
mythology
account or study of myths
necrology
register of persons who have died
neurology
scientific study of the nervous system and its diseases
paleontology
science dealing with life in the remote past as recorded in fossils
pathology
science dealing with the nature and causes of diseases
petrology
scientific study of rocks
physiology
science dealing with the functions of living things or their organs
psychology
science of the mind
sociology
study of the evolution, development, and functioning of human society
technology
industrial science
theology
study of religion and religious ideas
abiogenesis
spontaneous generation of life from lifeless matter
amphibious
able to live on both land and water
antibiotic
antibacterial substance produced by a living organism
autobiography
story of person's life written by that person
biochemistry
chemistry dealing with chemical compounds and processes in living plants and animals
biogenesis
development of life from preexisting life
biography
story of a person's life written by another person
biology
science dealing with the study of living organisms
biometry
calculation of the probable duration of human life
biopsy
diagnostic examination of a piece of tissue from the living body
biota
the living plants (flora) and living animals (fauna) of a region
symbiosis
the living together in mutually helpful association of two dissimilar
anatomy
dissection of plants or animals for the purpose of studying their structure, structure of a plant or animal
appendectomy
surgical removal of the appendix
atom
smallest particle of an element
atomizer
instrument for reducing to a fine spray
dichotomy
cutting or division into two; division
gastrectomy
surgical removal of part or all of the stomach
lobotomy
brain surgery for treatment of certain mental disorders
phlebotomy
opening of a vein to diminish the blood supply
tonsillectomy
surgical removal of the tonsils
tracheotomy
surgical operation of cutting into the trachea (windpipe)
antipodes
parts of the globe (or their inhabitants) diametrically opposite
arthropod
any invertebrate with jointed legs
chiropodist
one who treats ailments of the human foot
dipody
verse consisting of two feet; dimeter
podiatrist
chiropodist
podium
dais; raised platform, low wall serving as a foundation
pseudopod
temporary extension of the protoplasm, as in the ameba, to enable the organism to move and take in food
tripod
utensil, stool, or caldron having three legs
unipod
one-legged support
homochromatic
having the same color
heterochromatic
having different colors
homogenous
of the same kind; similar
heterogenous
differing in kind; dissimilar
homology
fundamental similarity of structure
heterology
lack of correspondence between parts
homomorphic
exhibiting similarity of form
heteromorphic
exhibiting diversity of form
homonym
word that sounds like another but differs in meaning and spelling
heteronym
word spelled like another, but differing in sound and meaning
homocentric
having the same center
homophonic
having the same sound
heteroclite
deviating from the common rule
heterodox
contrary to some acknowledged standard
hyperacidity
excessive acidity
hypoacidity
weak acidity
hyperglycemia
excess of sugar in the blood
hypoglycemia
low level of sugar in the blood
hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure
hyperthyroid
marked by excessive activity of the thyroid gland
hypothyroid
marked by deficient activity of the thyroid gland
hyperactive
overactive
hypercritical
overcritical
hyperemia
superabundance of blood
hyperopia
farsightedness
hypersensitive
excessively sensitive
hypertrophy
enlargement of a body part or organ as from excessive use
hypodermic
injected under the skin
hypothesis
theory or supposition assumed as a basis for reasoning
hypothetical
assumed without proof for the purpose of reasoning, conjectural
orthodox
conforming to an acknowledged standard
atrophy
lack of growth from want of nourishment or from disease
myopia
nearsightedness
endo
within
exo
out of, outside
endocrine
secreting internally
exocrine
secreting externally
endogamy
marriage within the tribe, caste, or social group
exogamy
marriage outside the tribe, caste, or social group
endogenous
produced from within; due to internal causes
exogenous
produced from without; due to external causes
endoskeleton
internal skeleton or supporting framework in an animal
exoskeleton
hard protective structure developed outside the body, as the shell of a lobster
endosmosis
osmosis inward
exosmosis
osmosis outward
endocarditis
inflammation of the lining of the heart
endoderm
membranelike tissue lining the digestive tract
endoparasite
parasite living in the internal organs of an animal
ectoparasite
parasite living on the exterior of an animal
endophyte
planting growing within another plant
exoteric
external; exterior; readily understandable
esoteric
inner; private; difficult to understand
exotic
1) introduced from a foreign country
2) excitingly strange
archy
rule
anarchy
total absence of rule or government; confusion; disorder
autarchy
rule by an absolute sovereign
hierarchy
body of rulers or officials group in ranks each being subordinate to the rank above it
matriarchy
form of social organization in which the mother rules the family or tribe, descent being traced through the mother
oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
patriarchy
form of social organization in which the father rules the family or tribe, descent being traced through the father
geo
earth, ground
geocentric
measured from the earth's center; having the earth as a center
geodetic
pertaining to geodesy (mathematics dealing with the earth's shape and dimensions)
geography
study of the earth's surface, climate, continents, people, products, etc.
geology
science dealing with lines, angles, surfaces, and solids (literally measurement of land)
geomorphic
pertaining to the shape of the earth or the form of its surface
geophysics
science treating of the forces that modify the earth
geopolitics
study of government and its policies as affected by physical geography
geoponics
art or science of agriculture (literally working of the earth)
georgic
agricultural, poem on husbandry (farming)
geotropism
response to earth's gravity, as the growing of roots downward in the ground
apogee
farthest point from the earth in the orbit of a satellite
perigee
nearest point to the earth in the orbit of a satellite
geometry
mathematics dealing with lines, angles, surfaces, and solids
path (patho, pathy)
feeling, suffering, disease
antipathy
aversion; dislike
apathy
lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or excitement; indifference
empathy
the complet understanding of another's feelings, motives, etc.
pathetic
arousing pity
pathos
quality in speech, writing, music, events, etc., that arouses a feeling of pity or sadness
sympathy
a sharing of another's trouble; compassion
telepathy
transference of the thoughts and feelings of one person to another by no apparent means of communication
homeopathy
system of medical practice that treats disease by administering minute doses of a remedy which, if given to heathy persons, would produce symptoms of the disease treated
osteopath
practitioner of osteopathy (treatment of diseases by manipulation of bones, muscles, nerves, etc.)
pathogenic
causing disease
pathological
due to disease
psychopathic
pertaining to mental disease, insane
morph
form
amorphous
without definite form; shapeless
anthropomorphic
attributing human form or characteristics to beings not human, especially gods
dimorphous
occurring under two distinct forms
endomorphic
occurring within; internal
heteromorphic
exhibiting diversity of form
metamorphosis
change of form
monomorphic
having a single form
morphology
branch of biology dealing with the form and structure of animals and plants
peri
around, about, near, enclosing
pericardium
membranous sac enclosing the heart
perihelion
nearest point to the sun in the orbit of a planet or comet
perimeter
the whole outer boundary or measurement of a surface or figure
periphery
outside boundary
periphrastic
expressed in a roundabout way
periscope
instrument permitting those in a submarine a view of the surface
peristalsis
wavelike contraction of the walls of the instestines which propels contents onward
peristyle
row of columns around a building or court, the space so enclosed
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum (membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covering the organs)
aphelion
farthest point from the sun in the orbit of a planet or comet