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APUSH Sem 1 Final

STUDY
PLAY
CH 14
...
1. Life on the frontier was a) fairly comfortable but not for men b) downright grim for most pioneer families c) free of disease and premature death d) rarely portrayed in popular literature e) based on tight-knit communities
b
2. Pioneering Americans marooned by geography a) remained well informed b) grew to depend on other people for most of their clothing c) abandoned the "rugged individualism" of colonial Americans d) looked to state governments for economic help e) became provincial in their attitudes
e
3. In early-nineteenth-century America, a) the annual population growth rate was much higher than in colonial days b) the urban population was growing at an unprecedented rate c) the birthrate was rapidly declining d) the death rate was increasing e) the center of population moved northward
b
4. The dramatic growth of American cities between 1800 and 1860 a) led to a lower death rate b) contributed to a decline in the birthrate c) resulted in unsanitary conditions in many communities d) forced the federal government to slow immigration e) created sharp political conflict between farmers and urbanites
c
5. "Ecological imperialism" can best be described as a) the efforts of white settlers to take land from Native Americans b) the aggressive exploitation of the West's bounty c) a desire for the U.S. to acquire California d) the spread of technology and industry e) none of the above
b
6. George Caitlin advocated a) placing Indians on reservations b) efforts to protect American's endangered species c) continuing the "rendezvous" system d) keeping white settlers out of the West e) the preservation of nature as a national policy
e
7. The influx of immigrants to the U.S. tripled, then quadrupled, in the a) 1810s and 1820s b) 1820s and 1830s c) 1830s and 1840s d) 1840s and 1850s e) 1860s and 1870s
d
8. Ireland's great export in the 1840s was a) people b) potatoes c) wool d) whiskey e) music
a
9. The Irish immigrants to early-nineteenth-century America a) were mostly Roman Catholics b) tended to settle on western farmlands c) were warmly welcomed by American workers d) identified and sympathized with American free blacks e) were often members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
a
10. When the Irish flocked to the U.S. in the 1840s, they stayed in the larger seaboard cities because they a) preferred urban life b) were offered high-paying jobs c) were welcomed by the people living there d) were too poor to move west and buy land e) had experience in urban politics
d
11. When the "famine Irish" came to America, they a) moved to the West b) mostly became farmers c) moved up the economic ladder quickly d) mostly remained in the port cities of the Northeast e) formed alliances with Yankees against the Germans
d
12. Native-born Protestant Americans distrusted and resented the Irish mostly because these immigrants a) were poor b) were thought to love alcohol c) were Roman Catholic d) frequently became police officer e) were slow to learn English
c
13. German immigrants in the early nineteenth century tended to a) settle in eastern industrial cities b) retain strong ties to Germany c) become slave-owners d) join the temperance movement e) support public schools
e
14. German immigrants to the U.S. a) quickly became a powerful political force b) left their homeland to escape economic hardships and autocratic government c) were as poor as the Irish d) contributed little to American life e) were almost all Catholics
b
15. When German immigrants came to the U.S., they a) often became Baptists or Methodists b) often mixed well with other Americans c) remained mostly in the Northeast d) prospered with astonishing ease e) dropped most of their German customs
d
16. Those who were frightened by the rapid influx of Irish immigrants organized a) the Order of the Star Spangled Banner b) the "Molly Maguires" c) Tammany Hall d) The Ancient Order of Hibernians e) The Ku Klux Klan
a
17. The sentiment of fear and opposition to open immigration was called a) the cult of domesticity b) nativism c) Unitarianism d) rugged individualism e) patriotism
b
18. Native-born Americans feared that Catholic immigrants to the U.S. would a) want to attend school with Protestants b) overwhelm the native-born Catholics and control the church c) "establish" the Catholic church at the expense of Protestantism d) assume control of the "Know-Nothing" party e) establish monasteries and convents in the West
c
19. Immigrants coming to the U.S. before 1860 a) depressed the economy due to their poverty b) found themselves involved in few cultural conflicts c) had little impact on society until after the Civil War d) settled mostly in the South e) helped to fuel economic expansion
e
20. The "Father of the Factory System" in the U.S. was a) Robert Fulton b) Samuel F.B. Morse c) Eli Whitney d) Samuel Slater e) Thomas Edison
d
21. Eli Whitney was instrumental in the invention of the a) steamboat b) cotton gin c) railroad locomotive d) telegraph e) repeating revolver
b
22. Most of the cotton produced in the American South in the early nineteenth century was a) produced by free labor b) sold to England c) grown on the tidewater plains d) consumed by the southern textile industry e) of the long-staple variety
b
23. The American phase of the industrial revolution first blossomed a) on southern plantations b) with textile mills c) in rapidly growing Chicago d) with shipbuilding e) in coal-mining regions
b
24. As a result of the development of the cotton gin, a) slavery revived and expanded b) American industry bought more southern cotton than did British manufacturers c) a nationwide depression ensured d) the South diversified its economy e) the textile industry moved to the South
a
25. The underlying basis for modern mass production was the a) cotton gin b) musket c) use of interchangeable parts d) principle of limited liability e) assembly line
c
26. The early factory system distributed its benefits a) mostly to the owners b) evenly to all c) primarily in the South d) to workers represented by unions e) to overseas investors
a
27. Match each individual below with the correct invention. A. Samuel F. B. Morse 1. telegraph B. Cyrus McCormick 2. mower-reaper C. Cyrus Field 3. steamboat D. Robert Fulton a) A-3, B-1, D-2 b) A-1, B-2, D-3 c) A-1, C-2, D-3 d) B-2, C-1, D-1 e) B-2, B-1, D-3
b
28. The American work force in the early 19th century was characterized by a) substantial employment of women and children in factories b) strikes by workers that were few in number but usually effective c) a general lengthening of the workday from the to fourteen hours d) extensive political activity among workers e) reliance on the system of apprentices and masters
a
29. One reason that the lot of adult wage earners improved was a) support gained from the U.S. Supreme Court b) the passage of minimum wage laws c) the passage of laws restricting the use of strikebreakers d) the enactment of immigration restrictions e) the enfranchisement of the laboring man
e
30. In the case of Commonwealth vs. Hunt, the supreme court of Massachusetts ruled that a) corporations were unconstitutional b) labor unions were legal c) labor strikes were illegal d) the Boston Associates' employment of young women in their factories was inhumane e) the state could regulate factory wages and working conditions
b
31. The "cult of domesticity" a) gave women more opportunity to seek employment outside the home b) resulted in more pregnancies for women c) restricted women's moral influence on the family d) glorified the traditional role of women as homemakers e) was especially strong among rural women
d
32. Early-nineteenth-century America families a) were becoming more loosely knit and less affectionate b) usually included three generations in the same household c) taught their children to be unquestioningly obedient d) usually allowed parents to determine choice of marriage partners e) were getting smaller
e
33. One of the goals of the child-centered family of the 1800s was to a) raise children who were obedient to authority b) allow parents to spoil their children c) raise independent individuals d) increase the number of children e) preserve childhood innocence
c
34. The effect of early 19th century industrialization of the trans-Allegheny West was to encourage a) specialized, cash-crop agriculture b) slavery c) self-sufficient farming d) heavy industry e) higher tariffs
a
35. With the development of cash-crop agriculture in the trans-Allegheny West, a) subsistence farming became common b) farmers began to support the idea of slave labor c) farmers quickly faced mounting indebtedness d) the South could harvest a larger crop e) the issue of farm surpluses came to the fore
c
36. The first major transportation project linking the East to the trans-Allegheny West was the a) Baltimore and Ohio Railroad b) National (Cumberland) Road c) Erie Canal d) St. Lawrence Seaway e) Lancaster Turnpike
e
37. Western road building faced all of the flowing problems except a) the expense b) states' rights advocates' opposition c) eastern states' opposition d) competition from canals e) wartime interruptions
d
38. The major application for steamboats transporting freight and passengers in the U.S. was on a) New England Streams b) western and southern rivers c) the Great Lakes d) the Gulf of Mexico e) coastal waterways
b
39. The "canal era" of American history began with the construction of the a) Mainline Canal in Pennsylvania b) James River and Kanasha Canal from Virginia to Ohio c) Wabash Canal in Indiana d) Suez Canal in Illinois e) Erie Canal in New York
e
40. Construction of the Erie Canal a) forced some New England farmers to move or change occupations b) showed how long-established local markets could survive a continental economy c) helped farmers so much that industrialization was slowed d) was aided by federal money e) created political tensions between the Northeast and the Midwest
a
41. Most early railroads in the U.S. were built in the a) North b) Old South c) Lower Mississippi Valley d) Far West e) Appalachian Mountains
a
42. Compared with canals, railroads a) were more expensive to construct b) transported freight more slowly c) were generally safer d) were susceptible to weather delays e) could be built almost anywhere
e
43. In the new continental economy, each region specialized in a particular economic activity: the South ________________ for export; the West grew grains and livestock to feed ________________; and the East _________________ for the other two regions. a) raised grain, southern slaves, processed meat b) grew cotton, southern slaves, made machines and textiles c) grew cotton, eastern factory workers, made machines and textiles d) raised grain, eastern factory workers, made furniture and tools e) processed meat, southern slaves, raised grain
c
44. As a result of the transportation revolution, a) division of labor became a thing of the past b) New Orleans became an even more important port c) each regions in the nation specialized in a particular type of economic activity d) self-sufficiency became easier to achieve for American families e) the Midwest became the first industrialized region
c
45. In general, __________________ tended to bind the West and South together, while _____________ and ______________ connected West to East. a) steamboats, canals, railroads b) railroads, canals, steamboats c) canals, steamboats, turnpikes d) turnpikes, steamboats, canals e) turnpikes, railroads, steamboats
a
46. As the new continental market economy grew, a) individual households became increasingly self-sufficient b) the home came to be viewed as a refuge from the workday world c) traditional women's work became more highly valued and increasingly important d) respect for women as homemakers declined e) the home lost most of its importance for family life
b
47. A major economic consequence of the transportation and marketing revolutions was a) a lessoning of the gap between great wealth and poverty b) a stabilization of the work force in industrial cities c) the declining significance of American agriculture d) the declining significance of American agriculture e) a steady improvement in average wages and standards of living f) the growing realization of the "rags-to-riches" American dream
d
CH 17
...
1. John Tyler joined the Whig party because he a) thought that it was the easiest way to become president b) could not stomach the dictatorial tactics of Andrew Jackson c) was forced to resign from the Senate d) believed in its pro-bank position e) believed it better represented Virginia's interests
b
2. The Whigs placed John Tyler on the 1840 ticket as vice president to a) have him instead of President William Henry Harrison actually run the executive branch b) win northern votes c) attract the vote of the states' rightists d) reward him for his strong support of the Whig party platform e) respond to the Democrats' expansionist appeal
c
3. After President Tyler's veto of a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States, a) he was expelled from the Whig party b) all but one member of his cabinet resigned c) an attempt was made in the House of Representatives to impeach him d) Tyler also vetoed a Whig-sponsored high-tariff bill e) all of the above
e
4. The only member of President Tyler's Whig cabinet who did not resign in protest over his policies was a) Henry Clay b) Zachary Taylor c) Robert Walker d) Daniel Webster e) Millard Fillmore
d
5. During an 1837 Canadian insurrection against Britain, a) the U.S. stayed neutral in word and action b) the U.S. imprisoned several American violators of neutrality c) America was invaded by the British d) Canada warned the U.S. to stay out of the conflict e) the U.S. government plotted to annex Canada
c
6. As a result of the Panic of 1837, a) the U.S. established restrictions on foreign loans b) Britain lent money to America, its close ally c) anti-British passions cooled in America d) the Democrats led America into war for more territory e) several states defaulted on their debts to Britain
e
7. The British-American dispute over the border of Maine was solved a) by war b) by a compromise that gave each side some territory c) when America was given all of the territory in question d) by the Caroline incident e) by admitting Maine into the Union and New Brunswick into Canada
b
8. The Aroostook War was the result of a) a short-lived insurrection in British Canada b) the Caroline incident c) the offer of asylum to the crew of the Creole d) a dispute over the northern boundary of Maine e) a fishing dispute between Britain and the U.S.
d
9. Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) annexation of Texas, (B) Webster-Ashburton Treaty, (C) settlement of the Oregon boundary, (D) Aroostook War a) A, B, D, C b) B, D, C, A c) D, B, A, C d) C, A, B, D e) A, D, C, B
c
10. Some people in Britain hoped for a British alliance with Texas because a) the alliance would help to support the Monroe Doctrine b) this area would provide an excellent base from which to attack the U.S. c) Mexican efforts to attack the U.S. would be stopped d) Texas could become a location for the settlement of undesirable British emigrants e) the alliance would give abolitionists the opportunity to free slaves in Texas
e
11. One argument against annexing Texas to the U.S. was that the annexation a) could involve the country in a series of ruinous wars in America and Europe b) might give more power to the supporters of slavery c) was not supported by the people of Texas d) offered little of value to America e) would lead to tensions and possible war with Mexico
b
12. Texas was annexed to the U.S. as a result of a) Senate approval of the Treaty of Annexation b) President Tyler's desire to help his troubled administration c) a presidential order by Andrew Jackson d) the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo e) a compromise to admit free-state Iowa at the same time
b
13. Arrange in chronological order the U.S.' acquisition of (A) Oregon, (B) Texas, (C) California a) A, B, C b) C, B, A c) B, A, C d) B, C, A e) A, C, B
c
14. The primary group that was instrumental in strengthening and saving American claims to Oregon were a) the Lewis and Clark expedition b) the Hudson's Bay Company c) American missionaries to the Indians d) U.S. naval forces in Puget Sound e) Mormon Settlers from Utah
c
15. Most Americans who migrated to the Oregon Country were attracted by the a) rich soil of the Willamette River Valley b) expectation of fighting British troops c) potential profits in the fur trade d) discovery of gold and sliver in the Cascade Mountains e) hope of finding a better trade route to East Asia
a
16. The nomination of James K. Polk as the Democrats' 1844 presidential candidate was secured by a) expansionists b) anti-Texas southerners c) Henry Clay d) Eastern business interests e) Proslavery forces
a
17. The area in dispute between the U.S. and Great Britain in 1845 lay between a) the forty-second parallel and the Columbia River b) the Cascade Mountains, the Columbia River, and Puget Sound c) the 36 degree 30 minute line and the Columbia River d) the 49th parallel and the 54 degree 40 minute line e) the Columbia River, the 49th parallel, and the Pacific Ocean
e
18. In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an American nation stretching across North America was called a) continentalism b) isolationism c) anglophobia d) Divine Mandate e) Manifest Destiny
e
19. In the presidential election of 1844, the Whig candidate, Henry Clay, a) opposed the annexation of Texas b) called for immediate annexation of Texas c) favored postponing the annexation of Texas d) ignored the issue of the annexation of Texas e) favored dividing Texas into several states
c
20. The election of 1844 was notable because a) the campaign raised not real issues b) a genuine mandate emerged c) it was fought over numerous issues d) Polk won the electoral vote but lost the popular vote e) it brought the slavery issue into politics
c
21. The group most supportive of gaining control of all the Oregon Country was the a) southern Democrats b) Whigs c) northern Democrats d) Californians e) protestant missionaries
c
22. In the Oregon treaty with Britain in 1846, the northern boundary of the U.S. was established to the Pacific Ocean along the line of a) 42 degrees b) 52 degrees, 40 minutes c) 54 degrees, 40 minutes d) 36 degrees, 30 minutes e) 49 degrees
e
23. One reason that the British government decided to compromise on the Oregon Country border was a) the support of the Hudson's Bay Company b) the fear of war with the United States c) John Tyler's election to the presidency d) America's acceptance of 54 degrees 40 minutes e) their better ability to defend British Columbia
b
24. In his quest for California, President Polk a) advocated war with Mexico from the beginning b) argued strongly for annexation, because Americans were the most numerous people in the area c) was motivated by his knowledge of gold deposits there d) sought British help to persuade Mexico to sell the area to the U.S. e) first advocated buying the area from Mexico
e
25. Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) Bear Flag Revolt, (B) Slidell mission rejected, (C) declaration of war on Mexico, (D) American troops ordered to the Rio Grande Valley a) B, D, C, A b) A, C, B, D c) D, B, A, C d) C, A, D, B e) A, D, C, B
a
26. In 1846 the U.S. went to war with Mexico for all of the following reasons except a) the ideology of Manifest Destiny b) the deaths of American soldiers at the hands of Mexicans c) the desire to gain payment for damage claims against the Mexican government d) the impulse to satisfy those asking for "spot" resolutions e) Polk's desire to acquire California
d
27. President Polk's claim that "American blood [had been shed] on the American soil" referred to news of an armed clash between Mexican and American troops near a) San Francisco b) the Nueces River c) Santa Fe d) the Rio Grande e) San Antonio
d
28. During the Mexican War, the Polk administration was called upon several times to respond to "spot" resolutions indicating where American blood had been shed to provoke the war. The resolutions were frequently introduced by a) Abraham Lincoln b) Henry Clay c) Robert Walker d) David Wilmot e) Lewis Cass
a
29. One goal of Mexico in its 1846-1848 war with the U.S. was to a) demonstrate the strength of Latino culture b) regain control of Texas c) capture slaves and take them back to Mexico d) force America to make good on unpaid claims of damages to Mexican citizens e) free black slaves
e
30. When the war with Mexico began, President Polk a) advocated taking all of Mexico b) found that he could trust dethroned Mexican dictator Santa Anna c) hoped to fight a limited war, ending with the conquest of California d) supported a large-scale conflict e) denied any intention of expanding slavery
c
31. Match each American officer below with his theater of command in the Mexican War. A. Stephen W. Kearny 1. northern Mexico B. Zachary Taylor 2. California C. Winfield Scott 3. Santa Fe D. John C. Fremont 4. Mexico City a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4 b) A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2 c) A-3, B-4, C-2, D-1 d) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4 e) A-4, B-1, C-2, D-3
b
32. The terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ending the Mexican War included a) a guarantee of the rights of Mexicans living in New Mexico b) U.S. annexation of Texas c) the banning of slavery from all territory ceded to the U.S. d) a requirement that Mexico pay $3.25 million in damages to the U.S. e) U.S. payment of $15 million for cession of northern Mexico
e
33. Those people most opposed to President Polk's expansionist program were the a) western Democrats b) antislavery forces c) senate Democrats d) supporters of Nicholas P. Trist e) proslavery Whigs
b
34. The Wilmot Proviso a) symbolized the burning issue of slavery in the territories b) gained House and Senate approval in 1846 c) settled once and for all the issue of slavery in California d) allowed slavery in the territory take from Mexico in 1848 e) left open the issue of slavery in New Mexico and Utah
a
35. The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared that a) Mexican territory would not be annexed to the U.S. b) slavery would be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the U.S. c) the U.S. should annex all of Mexico d) the U.S. should have to pay Mexico a financial indemnity for having provoked a war e) slavery in the territories would be determined by democratic vote
b
36. The largest single addition to American territory was a) the Louisiana Purchase b) the Mexican Cession c) the Oregon Country d) the Old Northwest e) Alaska
b
37. The first Old World Europeans to come to California were a) Russians b) French c) Dutch d) English e) Spanish
e
38. The Spanish Franciscan missionaries treated the native inhabitants of California a) according to the principles of their founder, St. Francis b) well but refused to convert them to Christianity c) very harshly d) better than they treated their African slaves e) as capable of civilization if educated
c
39. When the Mexican government secularized authority in California, a) missionaries gained power b) slavery became an accepted practice c) convicts brought in by Spain were expelled d) California's Indians received better treatment e) Californios eventually gained control of the land
e
40. The Californio's political ascendancy in California ended a) with the arrival of Franciscan friars b) as a result of the influx of Anglo golddiggers c) when Mexico gained control of the area in 1826 d) when agriculture became more profitable than mining e) when the U.S.government made English mandatory
b
CH 18
...
1. In order to maintain the two great political parties as vital bonds of national unity, early 19th century politicians a) decided to ban slavery from all United States territories b) decided to allow slavery into all U.S. territories c) avoided public discussion of slavery d) banished abolitionists from membership in either national party e) worked to make third parties almost impossible
c
2. The U.S.' victory in the Mexican American War resulted in a) renewed controversy over the issue of extending slavery into the territories b) a possible split in the Whig and Democrat parties over slavery c) the cession by Mexico of an enormous amount of land to the U.S. d) a rush of settlers to new American territory in California e) all of the above
e
3. The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have a) prevented the taking of any territory from Mexico b) required California to enter the Union as a slave state c) overturned the Fugitive Slave Law d) prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War e) all of the above
d
4. The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession a) threatened to split national politics along North-South lines b) nearly resulted in the return of the territory to Mexico c) resulted in the formation of the Republican party d) resulted in strong hostility to further expansion e) all of the above
a
5. In 1848, the Free Soil party platform advocated all of the following except a) support of the Wilmot Proviso b) internal improvements c) free government homesteads for settlers d) opposition to slavery in the territories e) an end to slavery in the District of Columbia
b
6. According to the principle of 'popular sovereignty.' The question of slavery in the territories would be determined by a) the most popular national leaders b) a national referendum c) congressional legislation d) a Supreme Court decision e) the vote of the people in any given territory
e
7. The public liked popular sovereignty because it a) stopped the spread of slavery b) fit in with the democratic tradition of self-determination c) provided a national solution to the problem of slavery d) supported the Wilmot Proviso e) upheld the principles of white supremacy
b
8. In the 1848 presidential election, the Democratic and Whig parties a) lost to the Free Soil party b) addressed the issue of slavery c) remained silent on the issue of slavery d) abandoned the tactic of nominating military leaders e) were divided on the issue of admitting California
c
9. The key issue for the major parties in the 1848 presidential election was a) personalities b) slavery c) expansion d) Indian removal e) The economy
a
10. The event that brought turmoil to the administration of Zachary Taylor was the a) passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act b) influx of immigrants to the west coast c) attempt to acquire Cuba d) growth of lawlessness in California e) discovery of gold in California
e
11. The Free Soilers argued that slavery a) was unsuited to the West b) would cause more costly wage labor to wither away c) would, through its profits, enable small farmers to buy more land d) should be gradually abolished e) all of the above
b
12. Of those people going to California during the gold rush, a) the majority had come from foreign nations b) slaves constituted a sizable minority c) the majority gained considerable financial rewards d) most were interested in free-soil farming e) a distressingly high proportion were lawless men
e
13. The Free Soliers condemned slavery because a) of the harm it did to blacks b) of moral principles c) it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise to self-employment d) it was the only way they had of combating the appeal of the Democratic party e) it damaged the national economy
c
14. By 1850, the South a) was experiencing economic difficulties b) feared that slavery might be abolished in states where it already existed c) remained concerned about its weak voice in national government d) was relatively well off, p[politically and economically e) recognized that slavery expansion was over
d
15. Harriet Tubman gained fame a) by helping slaves escape to Canada b) in the gold fields of California c) as an African-American antislavery novelist d) as an advocate of the Fugitive Slave Law e) by urging white women to oppose slavery
a
16. During the 1850s, slaves gained their freedom most frequently by a) running away b) persuading masters to free them c) rebellion d) use of federal laws e) self-purchase
e
17. John C. Calhoun's plan to protect the South and slavery involved a) a constitutional amendment permanently guaranteeing equal numbers of slave and free states b) southern secession from the Union c) support of Henry Clay's proposed concessions by both the North and the South d) repealing the president's veto power e) the election of two presidents, one from the North and one from the South
e
18. Daniel Webster's famed Seventh of March speech in 1850 resulted in a) Senate rejection of a fugitive-slave law b) A shift toward compromise in the North c) Condemnation by northern commercial interests d) Charges of accepting bribes e) A movement to draft him for the presidency
b
19. In his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster a) attacked Henry Clay's compromise proposals b) called for a new, more stringent fugitive-slave law c) advocated a congressional ban on slavery in the territories d) proposed a scheme for electing two presidents, one from the North and one from the South, each having veto power e) became a hated figure in the South
b
20. For his position in his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster was viciously condemned by a) northern Unionists b) northern banking and commercial interests c) abolitionists d) Henry Clay e) John C. Calhoun
c
21. The Young Guard from the North a) regarded preserving the Union as their top priority b) agreed fully with the Old Guard on the issue of slavery c) saw expansionism as a solution to the slavery question d) gave support to John C. Calhoun's plan for rescuing the Union e) were most interested in purging and purifying the Union
e
22. In the debates of 1850, Senator William H. Seward, as a representative of the northern Young Guard, argued that a) the Constitution must be obeyed b) John C. Calhoun's compromise plan must be adopted to preserve the Union c) Christian legislators must obey God's moral law d) Compromise must be achieved to preserve the Union e) African Americans should be granted their own territory
c
23. During the debate of 1850, ___________________ argued that there was a "higher law" than the Constitution that compelled him to demand the exclusion of slavery form the territories. a) William H. Seward b) Henry Clay c) Daniel Webster d) Stephen A. Douglas e) Zachary Taylor
a
24. President Zachary Taylor unknowingly helped the cause of compromise in 1850 when he a) lead an invasion of Texas to halt its attempts to take part of New Mexico b) supported fellow southerner John C. Calhoun's plan for union c) died suddenly and Millard Fillmore became president d) ushered in a second Era of Good Feelings e) decided not to run for re-election
e
25. Southern delegates met at a convention in Nashville in the summer of 1850 to a) plan southern secession b) plan ways to acquire more slave territory c) propose a series of constitutional amendments d) denounce Daniel Webster as a traitor to the South e) condemn the compromises being worked out in Congress
c
26. In the Compromise of 1850, Congress determined that slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories was a) to be banned b) protected by federal law c) to be decided by popular sovereignty d) to be ignored until either territory applied for admission to statehood e) to be decided by the Mormon Church
c
27. The most alarming aspect of the Compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision concerning a) slavery in the District of Columbia b) slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories c) the new Fugitive Slave Law d) settlement of the Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute e) continuation of the interstate slave trade
a
28. The Fugitive Slave Law included all of the flowing provisions except a) the requirement that fugitive slaves be returned from Canada b) denial of a jury trial to runaway slaves c) denial of fleeing slaves' right to testify on their own behalf d) the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape e) a higher payment if officials determined blacks to be runaways
e
29. Many northern states passed 'personal liberty' laws in response to the Compromise of 1850's provision regarding a) slavery in the District of Columbia b) slavery in the territories c) restriction son free blacks d) the interstate slave trade e) runaway slaves
b
30. In light of future evidence, it seems apparent that in the Compromise of 1850 the South made a tactical blunder by a) allowing a ban on the slave trade in Washington, D.C. b) demanding a strong fugitive-slave law c) not insisting on federal protection of slavery in the territories d) allowing the admission of California as a free state e) allowing popular sovereignty in Nebraska territory
b
31. The fatal split in the Whig party in 1852 occurred over a) the nomination of General Winfield Scott or Daniel Webster b) slavery c) the Gadsden Purchase d) homestead laws e) the transcontinental railroad route
d
32. The election of 1852 was significant because it a) saw the victory of a pro-South northerner b) marked the return of issues-oriented campaigning c) saw the rise of purely national parties d) marked the end of the Whig party e) saw the emergence of an antislavery third party
a
33. For a short time in the 1850s, an American seized control of a) Nicaragua b) Cuba c) Japan d) El Salvador e) Puerto Rico
e
34. The man who opened Japan to the U.S. was a) William Walker b) Franklin Pierce c) Lafcadio Hearn d) Clayton Bulwer e) Matthew Parry
c
35. The prime objective of Manifest Destiny in the 1850s was a) Panama b) Nicaragua c) Cuba d) Hawaii e) The Dominican Republic
b
36. The U.S.' scheme to gain control of Cuba was stopped when a) Spain thereatened war b) northern free-soilers fiercely protested the effort c) U.S. leaders signed the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty d) Cuba refused to go along with the plan e) U.S. adventurers bungled their invasion
e
37. The most brazen scheme for territorial expansion in the 1850s was expressed in the a) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty b) Wilmot Proviso c) Kansas-Nebraska Act d) Gadsden Purchase e) Ostend Manifesto
d
38. Most American leaders believed that the only way to keep the new Pacific Coast territories from breaking away form U.S. control was a) to allow slavery in these areas b) to build a canal across Central America c) to grant the territories quick statehood d) to construct a transcontinental railroad e) to establish large naval bases in San Diego
c
39. A southern route for the transcontinental railroad seemed the best because a) northern areas were organized territories b) slave labor could be used to construct it c) the railroad would be easier to build in this area d) Mexican leader Santa Anna agreed to contribute money for the project e) It would firmly tie southern California to the Union
a
40. Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the question of slavery in the Kansas-Nebraska Territory be decided by a) popular sovereignty b) making Kansas a free territory and Nebraska a slave territory c) the Supreme Court d) admitting California, Kansas, and Nebraska to the Union as free states e) the winner of the next presidential election
e
41. Stephen A. Douglas's plans for deciding the slaveyr question in the Kansas-Nebraska scheme required repeal of the a) Compromise of 1850 b) Fugitive Slave Act c) Wilmot Proviso d) Northwest Ordinance e) Missouri Compromise
d
CH 19
...
1. Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin a) intended to show the cruelty of slavery b) was prompted by passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act c) comprised the recollections of a long-time personal witness to the evils of slavery d) received little notice at the time it was published but became widely read during the Civil War e) portrayed blacks as militant resisters to slavery
a
2. Uncle Tom's Cabin may be described as a) a firsthand account of slavery b) a success only in the U.S. c) a romanticized account of slavery d) having little effect on the start of the Civil War e) a powerful political force
e
3. As a result of reading Uncle Tom's Cabin, many northerners a) found the book's portrayal of slavery too extreme b) vowed to halt British and French efforts to help the Confederacy c) rejected Hinton Helper's picture of the South and slavery d) swore that they would have nothing to do with the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law e) sent guns to antislavery settlers in Kansas ("Beecher's Bibles).
d
4. When the people of Britain and France read Uncle Tom's Cabin, their governments a) realized that intervention in the Civil War on behalf of the South would not be popular b) concluded that they must end slavery n their own territory c) decided to give aid to the slaveholding South d) banned the book e) distributed the book as anti-American propaganda
a
5. Hinton R. Helper's book The Impending Crisis of the South argued that those who suffered most from slave labor were a) African Americans b) southern planters c) northern Republican abolitionists d) western farmers e) non-slaveholding southern whites
e
6. In 1855, proslavery southerners regarded Kansas as a) territory governed by the Missouri Compromise b) slave territory c) geographically unsuitable for slavery d) too close to free states for slavery to be practical e) a test for slavery in wheat-growing areas
b
7. In "Bleeding Kansas" in the mid-1850s, ______________ was/were identified with the proslavery element, and _________________was/were associated with the antislavery free-soilers. a) Beecher's Bibles; border ruffians b) John Brown; Preston Brooks c) the Pottawatomie massacre; the sack of Lawrence d) the Lecompton Constitution; the New England Immigrant Aid Society e) Stephen A. Douglas; William Sumner
d
8. In 1856, the breaking point over slavery in Kansas came with a) the arrival of John Brown b) an attack on Lawrence by a gang of proslavery raiders c) the influx of a large number of slaves d) the establishment of evangelical abolitionist churches e) none of the above
b
9. President James Buchanan's decision on Kansas's Lecompton Constitution a) hopelessly divided the Democratic party b) admitted Kansas to the Union as a free state c) admitted Kansas to the Union as a slave state d) reaffirmed the Democratic party as a national party e) turned the focus of controversy to Nebraska
a
10. The Lecompton Constitution proposed that the state of Kansas a) be free of all slavery b) hold a popular referendum on slavery c) be controlled by the free-soilers if approved d) be allowed to prohibit slave auctions e) have black bondage regardless of whether the document was approved or not
e
11. The situation in Kansas in the mid-1850s indicated the impracticality of ______________ in the territories. a) abolitionism b) free soil c) popular sovereignty d) slavery e) cotton growing
c
12. The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed a) the seriousness of political divisions in the North b) the importance of honor to northerners c) the fact that, despite divisions over slavery, the House of Representatives would unite to expel a member for bad conduct d) the fact that passions over slavery were becoming dangerously inflamed in both North and South e) the division between the House and the Senate over slavery
d
13. James Buchanan won the Democratic nomination for presidency in 1856 because he a) took a strong stand against popular sovereignty b) had gained fame as an explorer c) controlled the key swing state of Pennsylvania d) opposed further immigration from Ireland e) was not associated with the Kansas-Nebraska Act
e
14. Match the candidate in the 1856 election below with the correct party. A. John C. Fremont 1. Democratic B. Millard Fillmore 2. Republican C. Martin Van Buren 3. Know-Nothing D. James Buchanan a) A-2, B-3, C-1 b) B-1, C-2, D-3 c) A-2, B-3, D-1 d) A-3, C-1, D-2 e) A-1, B-3, C-2
c
15. The central plank of the Know-Nothing party in the 1856 election was a) popular sovereignty b) expansionism c) proslavery d) abolitionism e) nativism
e
16. Nativists in the 1850s were known for their a) support of Native Americans (Indians) b) support for slavery c) opposition to old-stock Protestants d) anti-Catholic and anti-foreign attitudes e) opposition to alcohol and Sabbath-breaking
d
17. The Republicans lost the 1856 election in part because of a) southern threats that a Republican victory would be a declaration of war b) lingering support for slavery in the North c) northern bullyism d) the North's unwillingness at this stage to let the South depart in peace e) the division between Democrats and Know Nothings.
a
18. As late as 1856, many northerners were still willing to vote Democratic instead of Republican because a) of innate liberalism b) the Democrats presented excellent candidates c) many did not want to lose their profitable business connections with the South d) the Democrats were the only national party e) all of the above
c
19. In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the U.S. Supreme Court a) hoped to stimulate further debate on the slavery issue b) held that slaveowners could not take slaves into free territories c) supported the concept of popular sovereignty d) reunited the Democratic party e) expected to lay to rest the issue of slavery in the territories
e
20. The decision rendered in the Dred Scott case was applauded by a) abolitionists b) Republicans c) popular-sovereignty proponents d) proslavery southerners e) conservative unionists
d
21. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Dred Scott decision, (B) Lincoln-Douglas debates, (C) Kansas-Nebraska Act, (D) Harpers Ferry raid. a) A, C, B, D b) B, D, C, A c) C, A, B, D d) D, B, A, C e) A, C, D, B
c
22. For a majority of northerners, the most outrageous part of the Supreme Court's ruling in the Dred Scott case was a) that as a slave Scott had no right to sue in federal court b) that Scott did not automatically become free when his owner took him through free states and territories c) that Congress had never had the power to prohibit slavery in any territory d) that slaveowners had the right to flood into territories so as to control popular sovereignty e) that the Bill of Rights did not apply even to free African Americans
c
23. As a result of the panic of 1857, the South a) saw the weakness of its economic system b) supported government gifts of homesteads c) believed that "cotton was king" d) backed away from secession e) saw the need to develop manufacturing
c
24. The panic of 1857 resulted in a) a demand to end the government policy of giving away farmland b) the extension of slavery to the territories c) price supports for farmers d) calls for restrictions on land and stock speculation e) clamor for a higher tariff
e
25. The panic of 1857 a) was caused by over-exportation of southern cotton b) hit hardest among grain growers in the Northwest c) finally brought southern congressmen to support free homesteads d) stimulated northern demands for lower tariff rates e) demonstrated the economic dominance of the North
b
26. The political career of Abraham Lincoln could best be described as a) characterized by a rapid rise to power b) hurt by his marriage c) hurt by the Kansas-Nebraska Act d) slow to get off the ground e) marred by early political opportunism
d
27. As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, a) Lincoln was elected to the Senate b) Lincoln's national stature was diminished c) Douglas increased his chances of winning the presidency d) Illinois rejected the concept of popular sovereignty e) Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate
e
28. Stephen A. Douglas argued in his Freeport Doctrine during the Lincoln-Douglas debates that a) the Dred Scott decision was unconstitutional b) action by territorial legislatures could keep slavery out of the territories c) popular sovereignty would guarantee slavery in all U.S. territories d) Congress should reopen the Atlantic slave trade e) a new version of the Missouri Compromise was needed
b
29. In his raid on Harpers Ferry, John Brown intended to a) foment a slave rebellion b) discredit abolitionists c) force the North and the South to compromise on the slavery issue d) make Kansas a free state e) overthrow the federal government
a
30. After John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, the South concluded that a) the raid was an isolated incident b) the U.S. army could not protect slavery c) Brown should be put in an insane asylum d) Brown had been attempting to defend his right to own slaves e) the North was dominated by the "Brown-loving" Republicans
e
31. Abraham Lincoln was the 1860 Republican party presidential nomination in part because he a) had been a strong supporter of William Seward b) had never taken a stand on the issue of slavery in the territories c) had made fewer enemies than front-runner William Seward d) was a longtime supporter of Stephen Douglas e) had more political experience than his opponents
c
32. Match each presidential candidate in the 1860 election below with his party's position of the slavery question. A. Abraham Lincoln 1. extend slavery into the territories B. Stephen Douglas 2. ban slavery from the territories C. John Breckenridge 3. preserve the Union by compromise D. John Bell 4. enforce popular sovereignty a) A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4 b) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3 c) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1 d) A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3 e) A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2
b
33. The presidential candidate of the new Constitutional Union party in 1860 was a) Stephen A. Douglas b) William Seward c) John Bell d) Jefferson Davis e) James Crittenden
c
34. When Abraham Lincoln was the 1860 presidential election, people in South Carolina a) waited to see how other southern states would act b) were very upset because they would have to secede from the Union c) bowed to give their loyalty to Stephen Douglas d) rejoiced because it gave them an excuse to secede e) none of the above
d
35. The government of the Confederate States of America was first organized in a) Atlanta, Georgia b) Montgomery, Alabama c) Richmond, Virginia d) Knoxville, Tennessee e) Charleston, South Carolina
b
36. "Lame-duck" President James Buchanan believed that a) southern states had a legal duty to secede from the Union b) his duty was to protect federal installations from assault c) the election of 1860 was a fraud d) southern states had no choice but to secede from the Union e) the Constitution did not authorize him to force southern states to stay in the Union
e
37. President James Buchanan declined to use force to keep the South in the Union for all of the following reasons except that a) northern public opinion would not support it b) the army was needed to control Indians in the West c) he believed that the Constitution allowed secession d) a slim chance of reconciliation remained e) he was surrounded by pro-southern advisers
c
38. Abraham Lincoln opposed the Crittenden Compromise because a) it allowed the doctrine of popular sovereignty to be overrode once statehood had been achieved b) it permitted slavery in Utah territory c) its adoption might provoke Kentucky to leave the Union d) he flet bound by President Buchanan's earlier rejection of it e) the Compromise could allow slavery to expand into Latin America
e
39. Secessionists supported leaving the Union because a) they were dismayed by the success of the Republican party b) they believed that the North would not oppose their departure c) the political balance seemed to be tipping against them d) they were tired of abolitionist attacks e) all of the above
e
40. The immense debt owed to northern creditors by the South was a) repaid immediately after the Civil War b) repudiated by the South c) paid by pro-Union southerners during the war d) not repaid until the twentieth century e) converted into long-term Confederate bonds
b
Ch 10
...
1. When the new government was launched in 1789, a) the nation's population was doubling about every twenty-five years. b) Most people lived in the fast-growing cities c) Most people lived west of the Allegheny Mountains d) New York was the largest city in the nation e) Great Britain refused to establish diplomatic relations with the United States
a
2. Regarding central authority, early Americans saw it as all of the following except a) a necessary evil b) something to be distrusted c) something to be watched d) something to be curbed e) something to be ultimately eliminated
e
3. The new Constitution did not provide for the creation of a(n) a) Electoral College b) Vice president c) Supreme Court d) Cabinet e) federal court system
d
4. Match the individual with his office in the new government. A. Thomas Jefferson 1. attorney general B. Alexander Hamilton 2. secretary of state C. Henry Knox 3. secretary of war 4. secretary of the treasury a. A-1, B-3, C-2 b. A-3, B-1, C-4 c. A-2, B-4, C-3 d. A-4, B-2, C-1 e. A-1, B-4, C-3
c
5. One of the major criticisms of the Constitution as drafted in Philadelphia was that it a) was too long and detailed b) was far too short and required more detail c) failed to guarantee property rights d) failed to provide a mechanism for amendment e) did not provide guarantees for individual rights
e
6. The Bill of Rights was intended to protect _______________ against the potential tyranny of ________________. a) the prerogatives of Congress, the president b) the army and the navy, the national government c) the South, the northern majority d) individual liberties, a strong central government e) civilian authorities, the military
d
7. One of the fist jobs facing the new government formed under the Constitution was to a) establish a powerful army b) reestablish diplomatic ties with Britain c) draw up and pass a bill of rights d) establish economic ties with France e) all of the above
c
8. All of the following are guarantees provided by the Bill of Rights except a) the right to vote for all citizens b) freedom of speech c) freedom of religion d) freedom of the press e) right to a trial by jury
a
9. The ________________ Amendment might rightly be called the "states' rights" amendment. a) First b) Sixth c) Ninth d) Tenth e) Eighth
d
10. Alexander Hamilton's financial program for the economic development of the United States favored a) agricultural interests b) trade with France c) the wealthy d) the poor e) the middle class
c
11. Hamilton believed that, together, his funding and assumption programs would a) gain the monetary and political support of the wealthy class for the federal government. b) restore the principles of state sovereignty c) be the qui9ckest way to pay off the national debt d) guarantee the fairest treatment of the original holders of government bonds e) keep taxes low
a
12. As Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton's first objective was to a) help the wealthy b) bring more industry to the United States c) see that more agricultural products were exported d) bolster the national credit e) put the country on the gold standard
d
13. All of the following were part of Alexander Hamilton's economic program except a) a national bank b) funding the entire national debt at "par" c) assumption of state debts by the federal government d) tariffs e) paying only domestic debts but not foreign debts
e
14. Alexander Hamilton's financial plan for strengthening the economy and bolstering national credit proposed all of the following except a) funding the national debt b) assuming state debts c) abolishing tariffs d) establishing a national bank e) a low protective wall around infant industries
c
15. Alexander Hamilton believed that a limited national debt a) would do great harm to the nation's economy b) might lead to military weakness c) could persuade individuals and nations not to lend money to the United States d) was beneficial, because people to whom the government owed money would work hard to make the nation a success e) could help his economic plans but not his political plans
d
16. The aspect of Hamilton's financial program that received the least support in Congress was a) funding at par b) assumption c) the National Bank d) a protective tariff e) excise taxes
d
17. Hamilton expected that the revenue to pay the interest on the national debt would come from a) sales taxes and licensing fees b) customs duties and excise tax c) income and property taxes d) western land sales and foreign loans e) foreign aid
b
18. Alexander Hamilton's proposed bank of the United States was a) rejected by the House of Representatives b) supported by Thomas Jefferson c) enthusiastically supported by George Washington d) based on the "necessary and proper," or "elastic," clause in the Constitution e) never fully enacted
d
19. Which of the following pairs of items are not directly related to each other? a) implied powers - "necessary and proper" clause b) strict construction - Tenth Amendment c) loose construction - "elastic" clause d) states' rights - loose construction e) "necessary and proper" clause - vested powers
d
20. Hamilton's major programs seriously infringed on a) checks and balances b) national security c) states' rights d) free enterprise e) federal authority
c
21. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 arose in southwestern Pennsylvania when the federal government a) levied an excise tax on whiskey b) tried to prohibit the sale of whiskey c) allowed the import of foreign whiskey d) halted the export of American whiskey e) tried to prohibit the manufacturing of whiskey
a
22. Alexander Hamilton's Bank of the United States was modeled on the a) Bank of England b) Swiss National Bank c) Bank of France d) National bank that existed in the United States prior to the Constitution e) National bank of the Netherlands
a
23. The Founding Fathers had not envisioned the existence of permanent poltical parties because they a) opposed anyone who disagreed with them b) disliked politics c) had existed in Britain d) saw opposition to the government as disloyal e) all of the above
d
24. Match each political leader with his positions on public policy in the 1790s A. Hamilton 1. privileges for the upper classes B. Jefferson 2. pro-British 3. sympathy for the common people 4. potent central government 5. pay off the national debt (don't finance) 6. government support for business 7. pro-French 8. universal education a. A-1, 2, 4, 6 B-3, 5, 7, 8 b. A-1, 5, 6, 7
b-2, 3, 4, 8 c. A-2, 3, 5, 8, / B-1, 4, 6, 7 d. A-3, 6, 7, 8 / B-1, 2, 4, 5 e. A-5, 2, 6, 3 / B-1, 4, 7, 8/a
25. Opposition by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison to the financial plan of Alexander Hamilton resulted in a) the formation of permanent political parties b) Hamilton's dismissal from the cabinet by George Washington c) politics drifting too far out of kilter with the wishes of the people d) the rejection of Hamilton's plan by Washington e) all of the above
a
26. The event of the 1790s that has left the deepest scare on American political and social life is a) the Whiskey Rebellion b) the French Revolution c) Hamilton's economic plan for the country d) the trouble with Native Americans e) the development of the political party system
b
27. The political party of the 'outs' that provided the 'loyal opposition' to the party in power in the 1790s was a) the anti-Federalists b) the Federalists c) started by Jefferson and Madison d) the Whigs e) the Tories
c
28. The Franco-American alliance of 1778 a) was ended by mutual agreement in 1789 b) bound the United States to neutrality in the vent of war between France and Britain c) bound the United States to help the French defend their West Indies d) was invoked by the French to obtain American aid in France's war with Britain after 1793 e) led the United States to war with Great Britain in 1812
c
29. When the French Revolution developed into a war with Britain, George Washington and the American government a) supported Britain b) assisted France militarily c) tried to capture French possessions in North America and the West Indies d) remained neutral e) captured British possessions in North America
d
30. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 a) was based on calculations of American self interest b) fulfilled America's obligations under the Franco-American Treaty c) was opposed by both Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson d) dealt a sever blow to French military and naval strategists e) had little impact on future American foreign policy
a
31. Arrange the flowing events in chronological order: (A) XYZ affair, (B) Neutrality Proclamation, (C) Jay's Treaty, (D) Kentucky and Virginia resolutions a) C, B, A, D b) B, A, C, D c) B, C, A, D d) C, B, D, A e) A, B, D, C
c
32. During its first quarter-century as a nation, one of the major problems facing America was a) the rivalry and warfare between France and Britain b) a lack of good political leadership c) the continued fighting between the U.S. and the Armed Neutrality League d) Indian affairs e) separation of church and state
a
33. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation clearly illustrated the truism that a) he was unprepared for the demands of foreign policy b) foreign policy should be handled by a group and not a single individual c) the U.S. was trying to do was best for its allies d) self-interest is the basic cement of alliances e) none of the above
d
34. The Treaty of Greenville signed in August, 1795 with the Miami Confederation resulted in all of the following except a) giving to the United States vast tracts of land in the Old Northwest b) the Indians receiving a $20,000 lump sum payment c) an annual annuity of $9,000 to the Indians d) the right of the Indians to hunt the land they had ceded e) the establishment of an equal relationship with the Indians
e
35. Britain made neutrality very difficult for the United States during the French and British conflicts of the 1790s by a) granting America numerous trade privileges b) seizing American merchant ships in the West Indies c) leaving frontier outposts on American soil d) helping to relieve tensions between Indians and Americans e) blocking the major United States' seaports
b
36. Hamilton's position on the war between Britain and France in 1793 was primarily influenced by a) his commitment to the Franco-American alliance of 1778 b) the threat of British naval action against the American coast c) the national government's dependence on customs collections for revenue d) his personal commitment to democratic government as a world ideal e) ties to business
c
37. In Jay's Treaty, the British a) pledged to stop seizing American ships b) released Americans from their pre-Revolutionary War debt obligations to British merchants c) promised to evacuate the chain of forts in the Old Northwest d) refused to pay damages for seizures of American ships e) were denied most favored nation status
c
38. The United States acquired free navigation of the Mississippi River in a) the Treaty of Greenville b) Jay's Treaty c) The Convention of 1800 d) The Pinckney Treaty e) The Treaty of Paris
d
39. John Jay's 1794 treaty with Britain (the Jay Treaty) a) increased George Washington's huge popularity b) provided further evidence of American support for France c) alienated America from Spain d) created deeper splits between the Federalists and the Democratic- Republicans e) led to the election of Thomas Jefferson
d
40. One of George Washington's major contributions as president was a) keeping the nation out of foreign wars b) the signing of Jay's Treaty c) his advice against forming permanent alliances with foreign nations d) securing a pledge from Britain to stop arming Indians on the western lands e) establish the political party system
a
41. Jay's Treaty contained all of the following provisions except a) a British promise to evacuate its chain of forts on U.S. soil b) British consent to pay damages for the recent seizure of American ships c) that Americans were bound to pay debts still owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary accounts d) no promise by the British to pay for future seizure of American ships e) a promise by the British to stop selling arms to the Indians
e
42. Washington's Farewell Address in 1796 a) warmly endorsed the appearance of two contending political parties in America b) warned against the dangers of permanent foreign alliances c) was delivered to a joint session of Congress by Washington himself d) proposed a two-term limitation on the presidency e) all of the above
b
43. In the election campaign of 1796, the Republicans made their primary issue a) the content of Washington's Farewell Address b) Washington's refusal to consult Congress before issuing the Neutrality Proclamation c) the terms of Jay's Treaty d) the terms of the Pinckney Treaty e) Alexander Hamilton's idea for a national bank
c
44. The 1796 presidential campaign focused heavily on a) the Bank of the United States b) the candidates' personalities c) slavery d) foreign trade e) real issues
b
45. The French grew angry with the United States after 1794 because a) of Jay's Treaty b) Congress appointed second-rate ambassador c) of the XYZ affair d) John Adams had been elected president e) Thomas Jefferson was removed as ambassador
a
46. Foreign relations between the United States and France deteriorated in the late 1790s over a) the deportation of Citizen Genet b) French seizure of American merchant ships c) The adjustment of the Florida boundary d) America's unilateral withdrawal from the Franco-American alliance e) Pinckney's Treaty
b
47. The immediate cause of the undeclared war between the United States and France was a) the XYZ affair b) the Genet mission c) the Neutrality Proclamation d) Washington's Farewell Address e) Jay's Treaty
a
48. The United States finally negotiated a peace settlement with France in 1800 mainly because Napoleon a) had also reached a peace agreement with Britain b) wanted to concentrate on gaining more power in Europe c) realized that the French could not win a military victory over the American forces d) had been convinced by the Democratic-Republican pleas for cooperation e) was removed from power
b
49. President Adams sought a peaceful solution to the undeclared war with France in order to a) ensure his chances of reelection in 1800 b) align himself with the Hamiltonian wing of the Federalist party c) save the Franco-American alliance of 1778 d) prevent the outbreak of a full-scale war e) keep trade with France in place
d
50. The main purpose of the Alien and Sedition Acts was to a) capture French and British spies b) control the Federalists c) silence and punish critics of the Federalists d) keep Thomas Jefferson from becoming president e) provide support for the Republican party
c
51. The Federalist-dominated Congress' Alien Act was aimed at _______________, whereas the Sedition Act was primarily aimed at ________________. a) rebellious slaves, newspapers b) recent immigrants, newspapers c) recent immigrants, merchants d) merchant smuggling, rebellious slaves e) Indians, farmers
b
52. The Sedition Act a) threatened First Amendment freedoms b) established criteria for deporting dangerous foreigners c) changed naturalization requirements for new citizens d) was never enforced e) was found by the Supreme Court to be unconstitutional
a
53. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were written in response to a) the XYZ affair b) Thomas Jefferson's presidential candidacy in 1800 c) The Alien and Sedition Acts d) The compact theory of government e) The Federalist papers
c
54. According to the compact theory advocated by Jefferson and Madison, a) the national government was the creation of the thirteen sovereign states b) nullification was an invalid policy c) the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were illegal d) legislation such as the Alien and Sedition Acts was proper e) slavery was illegal
a
55. According to the Federalists, the duty of judging the unconstitutionality of legislation passed by Congress lay with a) state legislatures b) the president c) state supreme courts d) the Supreme Court e) the people
d
56. Federalists advocated rule by a) the majority b) the "best" people c) farmers d) industrial workers e) native born citizens only
b
57. Federalists strongly supported a) law and order b) states' rights c) strict construction d) popular democracy e) a wake military
a
58. For its continued success, Hamilton's financial program relied heavily on a) trade with Britain b) removal of the Spanish from the Mississippi Valley c) aid from France d) retiring the national debt e) high taxes
a
59. Hamiltonian Federalists advocated a) government interference in private enterprise b) a strong central government c) a full-blown democracy d) strong ties with France e) a low national debt
b
60. Thomas Jefferson appealed to all of the following groups except a) small shopkeepers b) the underprivileged c) the middle class d) shippers e) artisans
d
61. To the Jeffersonian Republicans, the "ideal" citizen of a republic was a(n) a) seaboard merchant b) town artisan c) indentured servant d) independent farmer e) industrialist
d
62. Thomas Jefferson favored a political system in which a) the central government possessed the bulk of the power b) cities were the primary focus of political activity c) a large standing army ensured peace d) the states retained the majority of political power e) manufacturing interests dominated
d
63. Jeffersonians believed in all of the following except a) opposition to a national debt b) agriculture as the ideal occupation c) every adult white male's right to vote d) freedom of speech e) central authority should be kept to a minimum
c
64. Thomas Jefferson argued that a landless class of voters could be avoided in part by a) a redistribution of land b) a reduced property tax c) abolishing the property qualification to vote d) continuing slavery e) restricting the amount of property owned by each citizen
d
Ch 11
...
1. One of the first lessons learned by the Jeffersonians after their victory in the 1800 presidential election was a) the need to strengthen diplomatic ties with Britain b) to go off the gold standard c) to decrease tariffs d) to institute an excise tax e) that it is easier to condemn from the stump than to govern consistently
e
2. One of the greatest problems that John Adams and the Federalists faced in the election of 1800 was a) Adams's efforts to get American involved in a war with France b) Increased public debt brought on by war preparations c) Adams's refusal to take the country to war against France d) Alexander Hamilton's support of Adams e) The stories circulating about Adams's relationship with a slave woman
c
3. In the election of 1800, the Federalists accused Thomas Jefferson of all of the following except a) having robbed a widow b) having fathered numerous mulatto children by his own slave women c) being an atheist d) supporting high taxes e) having robbed children of their trust funds
d
4. In the 1800 election Jefferson won the state of New York because a) of a reaction against Alexander Hamilton, Jefferson's enemy b) Aaron Burr used his influence to turn the state to Jefferson c) of the high taxes passed by the Adams administration d) Napoleon promised to sell the Louisiana Territory only to Jefferson e) all of the above
b
5. Jefferson received the bulk of his support from the a) South and West b) North c) cities d) areas where only the wealthy could vote e) New England
a
6. In 1800, Jefferson was chosen president by the a) people b) Electoral College c) House of Representatives d) wealthy e) business sector
c
7. Jefferson's 'Revolution of 1800' was remarkable in that it a) moved the U.S. away from its democratic ideals b) marked the peaceful and orderly transfer of power on the basis of election results accepted by all parties c) occurred after he left the presidency d) caused America to do what the British had been doing for a generation regarding the election of a legislative body e) was in no way a revolution.
b
8. Jefferson was elected president by the House of Representatives when a) a few Federalists refrained from voting b) Aaron Bur withdrew from the race c) Jefferson agreed to appoint John Marshall to the Supreme Court d) additional Jeffersonians became members of the House e) the electoral college gave up its responsibility
a
9. Jefferson saw his election and his mission as president to include all of the following except a) to return to the original spirit of the revolution b) restore the republican experiment c) check the growth of the republican experiment d) halt the decay of virtue e) support the establishment of a strong army
e
10. As president, Jefferson's stand on the political issues that he had previously championed a) remained unchanged b) was reversed c) grew even more rigid d) compelled him to repeal the Alien and Seditions Acts e) caused him to reject slavery
b
11. With Jefferson's election as president, the Democratic-Republican party a) grew stronger and more unified b) removed many Federalists from government jobs c) soon resented its leaders' lavish life-style d) grew less unified as the Federalist party began to fade and lose power e) sought to extend the Alien and Sedition Acts to punish their enemies
d
12. Jefferson's presidency was characterized by his a) unswerving conformity to Republican party principles b) rigid attention to formal protocol at White House gatherings c) moderation in the administration of public policy d) ruthless use of the patronage power to appoint Republicans to federal offices e) inability to get legislation passed by Congress
c
13. Upon becoming president, Jefferson and the Republicans in Congress immediately repealed a) the Alien and Sedition Acts b) the charter of the National Bank c) the excise tax on whiskey d) the funding and assumption of the national debt e) money to fund the naval build-up
c
14. When it came to the major Federalist economic programs, Jefferson as president a) left practically all of them intact b) quickly dismantled them c) slowly undid everything the Federalists achieved d) attacked only the Bank of the U.S. e) vetoed any new tariffs
a
15. Jefferson and his followers opposed John Adams's last-minute appointment of new federal judges mainly because a) the men appointed were of poor quality b) they believed that the appointments were unconstitutional c) they did not want a showdown with the Supreme Court d) the appointment was an attempt by a defeated party to entrench itself in the government e) these judges were not needed
d
16. The chief justice who carried out, more than any other federal official, the ideas of Alexander Hamilton concerning a powerful federal government was a) James Madison b) William Marbury c) John Marshall d) Samuel Chase e) John Jay
c
17. Before he became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, John Marshall's service at Valley Forge during the American Revolution convinced him a) to support Jefferson and his republican principles b) to give up the life of a soldier and return to law school c) of the drawbacks of feeble central authority d) of the futility of opposing Britain e) all of the above
c
18. As a chief justice of the U.S., John Marshall helped to ensure that a) states' rights were protected b) the programs of Alexander Hamilton were overturned c) the political and economic systems were based on a strong central government d) both the Supreme Court and the president could rule a law unconstitutional e) Aaron Burr was convicted of treason
c
19. The legal precedent for judicial review was established when a) the House of Representatives impeached Justice Samuel Chase b) the Supreme Court declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional c) Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 d) President John Adams appointed several 'midnight judges; to the federal courts e) the Judiciary Act of 1801was passed
b
20. The case of Marbury vs. Madison involved the question of who had the right to a) commit the U.S. to entangling alliances b) impeach federal officers for 'high crimes and misdemeanors' c) declare an act of Congress unconstitutional d) purchase foreign territory for the U.S. e) appoint Supreme Court justices
c
21. John Marshall, as chief justice of the U.S., helped to strengthen the judicial branch of government by a) applying Jeffersonian principles in all of his decisions b) asserting the doctrine of judicial review of congressional legislation c) overriding presidential vetoes d) listening carefully to and heeding the advice of lawyers arguing cases before the Supreme Court e) increasing the number of justices on the Supreme Court
b
22. Jefferson's failed attempt to impeach and convict Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase for "high crimes and misdemeanors" meant that a) no federal judge could ever be removed from office b) judicial independence and the separation of powers had been preserved c) Jefferson's effectiveness as president had been lost d) an unfortunate precedent had been established e) Aaron Burr would go free
b
23. Jefferson distrusted large standing armies because they a) were usually ineffective in battle b) always developed a destructive rivalry with the navy c) could be used to establish a dictatorship d) all of the above e) none of the above
c
24. Jefferson saw navies as less dangerous than armies because a) they were generally smaller in numbers b) they had little chance of starting a war c) they were in less contact with foreign powers d) they could not march inland and endanger liberties e) all of the above
d
25. Jefferson had strong misgiving about the wisdom of a) states' rights b) maintaining a large standing army c) having the presidency and Congress controlled by the same party d) removing federal judges by the process of impeachment e) juridical review
b
26. Jefferson's first major foreign-policy decision was to a) purchase Louisiana from France b) send a naval squadron to the Mediterranean c) drive the British out of the northwest forts d) purchase Florida from Spain e) form an alliance with Spain
b
27. Jefferson ceased his opposition to the expansion of the navy when the a) Pasha of Tripoli declared war on the U.S. b) U.S. Marine Corps was established c) "mosquito fleet" was defeated by the pirates at Tripoli d) Army was disbanded e) British blockaded the east coast
a
28. To guard American shores, Jefferson a) built a fleet of frigates b) constructed coastal fortifications c) approved the construction of two hundred tiny gunboats d) signed a peace treaty with Great Britain e) enlisted the aid of France
c
29. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Louisiana Purchase, (B) Chesapeake incident, (C) Burr's trial for treason, (D) Embargo Act a) A, B, D, C b) C, D, A, B c) A, C, B, D d) D, B, C, A e) B, D, C, A
c
30. In order to purchase New Orleans from France, Jefferson a) threatened to form an alliance with France's enemy, Spain b) was unwilling to go to war c) proposed to break away from all alliances to prove our neutrality d) was willing to use funds from private individuals if Congress would not authorize enough money for the purchase e) decided to make an alliance with his old enemy, Britain
e
31. Napoleon chose to sell Louisiana to the U.S. because a) he had suffered misfortunes in Santo Domingo b) he hoped that the territory would one day help America to thwart the ambitions of the British c) he did not want to drive America into the arms of the British d) yellow fever killed many French troops e) all of the above
e
32. Jefferson had authorized American negotiators to purchase only ___________ from France. a) New Orleans and the Floridas b) New Orleans and St. Louis c) Santo Domingo d) The Missouri River basin e) The entire Louisiana Territory
a
33. Jefferson was conscience-stricken about the purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France because a) the Federalists supported his action b) he believed that the purchase was unconstitutional c) he felt that the purchase was not a fair deal for France d) war with Spain might occur e) he feared the British might use it as an excuse to declare war on the U.S.
b
34. Lewis and Clark's expedition Louisiana Purchase territory yielded all of the following except a) a rich harvest of scientific observations b) treaties with several Indian nations c) maps d) hair-raising adventure stories e) knowledge of the Indians of the region
b
35. Lewis and Clark demonstrated the viability of a) travel across the isthmus of Panama b) an overland trail to the Pacific c) settlement in the southern portion of the Louisiana Territory d) using Hessian guides e) all of the above
b
36. After killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel, Aaron Burr a) fled to France b) ran for the Senate in New York, but was defeated c) was arrested and found guilty of murder d) was arrested and found innocent of murder e) engaged in a plot to separate the western part of the U.S. from the east
e
37. The British policy of impressment was a kind of a) naval blockade b) economic boycott c) forced enlistment d) diplomatic pressure e) punishment for the U.S.
c
38. The British impressed American sailors into the British navy because a) the Americans took the Chesapeake b) they needed more men c) Parliament passed a law d) of the XYZ affair e) they wanted to punish the U.S.
b
39. The Chesapeake incident involved the flagrant use of a) patronage b) impeachment c) judicial review d) impressment e) naval blockades
d
40. To deal with British and French violations of America's neutrality, Jefferson a) declared war on Britain b) hastily enacted an embargo c) declared war on France d) did nothing e) sought trade relations with Spain and Holland
b
41. Jefferson's embargo failed for all of the following reasons except that a) he underestimated the determination of the British b) he underestimated Britain's dependence on American trade c) Britain produced a bumper grain crop d) Latin America opened its ports for commerce e) he miscalculated the difficulty of enforcing it
b
42. Jefferson's foreign policy of economic coercion a) underestimated British dependence on American trade b) adversely affected France's economy more than Britain's c) stimulated manufacturing in the U.S. d) destroyed the Federalist party in New England e) succeeded in its goal of forcing the British to halt is impressment of American sailors
c
43. Macon's Bill No. 2 a) forbade American ships from leaving port b) permitted trade with all nations but promised that if either Britain or France lifted its commercial restrictions on American trade, the U.S. would stop trading with the other c) forbade American trade with Britain and France but promised to open trade with either nation if it would cease its violations of American neutrality rights d) repealed the Embargo Act of 1807 e) halted trade with Britain
b
44. President James Madison made a major foreign-policy mistake when he a) accepted Napoleon's promise to recognize America's rights b) vetoed Macon's Bill No. 2 c) allied the U.S. with Britain d) refused to trust Napoleon e) declared war on France
a
45. By 1810, the most insistent demand for a declaration of war against Britain came from a) New England merchants b) The West and South c) Federalists d) The middle Atlantic states e) Southern states
b
46. The war hawks demanded war with Britain because they wanted to do all of the following except a) wipe out renewed Indian resistance b) defend American rights c) gain more territory d) retaliate for British burning of Washington, D.C. e) revenge the manhandling of American sailors
d
47. Of the following, the only argument not put forward by the war hawks as a justification for a declaration of war against Britain was that a) the British armed Indians and incited them to raid frontier settlements b) British impressment policies were an affront to American nationalism c) Britain's commercial restrictions had come close to destroying America's profitable New England shipping business d) British Canada and Spanish Florida were attractive and easily obtainable prizes of war e) The orders in council stopped the flow of Western farm products to Europe
c
48. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) war hawks enter Congress, (B) declaration of war on Britain, (C) Embargo Act, (D) Battle of Tippecanoe a) A, B, C, D b) C, A, D, B c) B, C, A, D d) B, A, D, C e) B, C, D, A
b
49. Tecumseh argued that Indians should a) never give control of their land to the whites b) move west of the Mississippi River c) not cede control of land to whites unless all Indians agreed d) exchange traditional buckskin clothing or cloth garments e) fight as individual tribes and not as a confederacy
c
50. Native American leader Tecumseh was killed in 1813 at the a) Battle of Tippecanoe b) Battle of the Thames c) Battle of Horseshoe Bend d) Battle of New Orleans e) Battle of Fallen Timbers
b
51. The Battle of Tippecanoe resulted in a) defeat of the British b) a Shawnee loss and a Creek victory c) a declaration of war by the U.S. on Britain d) the expulsion of the British from Florida e) William Henry Harrison becoming a national hero
e
52. In 1812, James Madison turned to war a) to help him win re-election b) due to his hatred of Britain c) to fulfill alliance obligations with France d) to fulfill alliance obligations with Spain e) to restore confidence in the republican experiment
e
53. Seafaring New England opposed the War of 1812 because of all of the following except a) the Northeast Federalists sympathized with England b) it resented the Republican's sympathy with Napoleon c) Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada d) it could result in more agrarian states e) their strong trade ties with France
e
54. Once begun, the War of 1812 was supported strongly by a) practically all Americans b) New England and the seaboard states c) very few people d) the West and the South e) Native Americans
d
55. Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada because a) there were too many French there b) Canadian business would prove too competitive c) it was too agrarian and would give more votes to the Democratic-Republicans d) they believed that the Canadians could never become Americanized e) too many Indians lived there
c
56. During the War of 1812, the New England states a) supported the U.S.' war effort b) lent more money and sent more food to the British army than to the American army c) gave no support to either the Americans or the British d) allowed their militias to fight wherever the federal government requested e) declared their independence from the U.S.
b
Ch 12
...
1. The War of 1812 was one of the worst-fought wars in U.S. history because a) Native Americans supported the British b) too much national anger prevented clear thinking on strategy c) of the poor state of the economy d) of a non-existent militia e) of widespread disunity
e
2. When the U.S. entered the War of 1812, it was a) militarily unprepared b) allied with France c) united in support of the war d) fortunate to have a strong and assertive commander in chief e) New England that pushed for the conflict
a
3. The War of 1812 was one of the worst-fought wars in American history for all of the following reasons except that a) there was no militia to draw on to supplement the regular army b) disunity was widespread c) only a zealous minority supported the war d) the army was scandalously inadequate e) the militia was poorly trained
a
4. The performance of the U.S.' Navy in the War of 1812 was a) unusual for its brilliant military leadership b) a complete failure c) marked by good coordination of a complicated strategy d) notable for its support by New England e) a success on land but a failure on the water
e
5. Perhaps the key battle of the War of 1812, because it protected the U.S. from full-scale invasion and possible dissolution, was the Battle of a) Mackinac b) Plattsburgh c) the Thames d) Horseshoe Bend e) Fallen Timbers
b
6. British plans for their 1814 campaign did not include action in a) New York b) the Chesapeake c) Florida d) Louisiana e) Vermont
c
7. The British attack on Baltimore a) resulted in another British victory b) made possible the British invasion of Washington, D.C. c) inspired the writing of "The Star-Spangled Banner" d) produced the "Bladensburg Races" e) resulted in the destruction of many British shops
c
8. The most devastating defeat suffered by the British during the War of 1812 took place at the Battle of a) New Orleans b) Horseshoe Bend c) Tippecanoe d) the Thames e) Fallen Timbers
a
9. The Battle of New Orleans a) resulted in one more American defeat b) helped the U.S. to win the War of 1812 c) saw British troops defeated by Andrew Jackson's soldiers d) prevented Americans from taking Canada e) resulted in Louisiana becoming part of the U.S.
c
10. One result of the victories of the American navy was a) a British naval blockade of the U.S. b) the improvement of the American fishing industry c) an increase in British naval operations in Canadian waters d) the final elimination of British raiding parties landing on America's east coast e) more warships being built
a
11. At the peace conference at Ghent, the British began to withdraw many of their earlier demands for all of the following reasons except a) reserves in upper New York b) a loss at Baltimore c) increasing war weariness in Britain d) concerns about the still dangerous France e) the American victory at New Orleans
e
12. The delegates of the Hartford Convention adopted resolutions that included a call for a) a Constitutional amendment requiring a two-thirds vote in Congress before war was declared. b) New England's secession from the Union c) a separate peace treaty between New England and the British d) the dissolution of the Federalist party e) war with England
a
13. The resolutions from the Hartford Convention a) helped to cause the death of the Federalist party b) resulted in the resurgence of states' rights c) called for southern secession from the union d) supported use of state militias against the British e) called for the West to join the War of 1812
a
14. From a global perspective, the War of 1812 was a) a highly significant conflict b) more important to Europeans than to Americans c) of little importance d) responsible for the defeat of Napoleon e) more important than the American Revolution
c
15. In diplomatic and economic terms, the War of 1812 a) was a disaster for the U.S. b) could be considered the Second War for American Independence c) was considered a victory for Britain d) resulted in the fall of the British government that concluded the conflict e) was a disaster for Britain
b
16. The outcome of the War of 1812 was a) a decisive victory for the U.S. b) a stimulus to patriotic nationalism in the U.S. c) an embarrassment for American diplomacy d) a heavy blow to American manufacturing e) a decisive victory for the British
b
17. The Rush-Bagot agreement a) required the Indians to relinquish vast areas of tribal lands north of the Ohio River b) ended the traditional mutual suspicion and hatred between the U.S. and Great Britain c) limited naval armaments on the Great Lakes d) provided for Canadian independence from Great Britain e) gave Florida to the U.S.
c
18. After the War of 1812, Europe a) became more democratic and liberal b) developed very close ties to the U.S. c) continued to have an important impact on American shipping d) returned to conservatism, illiberalism, and reaction e) sought more trade with China
d
19. One of the most important by-products of the War of 1812 was a) a renewed commitment to states' rights b) a heightened spirit of nationalism c) a resurgence of the Federalist party d) increased economic dependence on Europe e) the subjugation of the Indians
b
20. One of the nationally recognized American authors in the 1820s was a) Washington Irving b) Edgar Allan Poe c) Walt Whitman d) Stephen Decatur e) Stephen Douglas
a
21. Post-War of 1812 nationalism could be seen in all of the flowing except a) the way in which American painters depicted the beauty of American landscapes b) a revival of American religion c) the building of a more handsome national capital d) an expanded army e) development of a national literature
b
22. At the end of the War of 1812, British manufacturers a) discontinued trade with America b) conducted only limited trade with America c) began dumping their goods in America at extremely low prices d) demanded a high tariff against American goods e) say their profits fall dramatically
c
23. The Tariff of 1816 was the first in American history a) to be enacted b) intended to raise revenue c) that aimed to protect American industry d) to impose customs duties on foreign imports e) designed to protect agriculture
c
24. Henry Clay's call for federally funded roads and canals received whole-hearted endorsement from a) President Madison b) New England c) the West d) Jeffersonian Republicans e) the South
c
25. New England opposed the American System's federally constructed roads because a) the cost too much b) the Democratic-Republicans favored them c) canals were a superior means of transportation d) they would drain away needed population to the West e) they were poorly constructed
d
26. Democratic-Republicans opposed Henry Clay's American System because a) it favored only the South b) it would provide stiff competition to the Erie Canal c) they believed that it was unconstitutional d) the Bonus Bill of 1817 made it unnecessary e) they favored a road system that included Canada
c
27. The Era of Good Feelings a) was characterized by the absence of any serious problems b) was noted for cooperation between the Democratic and Republican parties c) marked a temporary end to sectionalism d) was a troubled period e) saw the start of the Whig party
d
28. With the demise of the Federalist party, a) the Democratic-Republicans established one-party rule b) another party arose very quickly to take its place c) little political trouble ensued d) sectionalism disappeared e) the Whig party rose to take its place
a
29. The panic of 1819 brought with it all of the following except a) inflation b) unemployment c) bank failures d) soup kitchens e) bankruptcies
a
30. One of the major causes of the panic of 1819 was a) bankruptcies b) over-speculation in frontier lands c) deflation d) the failure to recharter the Bank of the United States e) a drought that resulted in poor agricultural production
b
31. The western land boom resulted from all of the following except a) it was a continuation of the old westward movement b) land exhaustion in older tobacco states c) speculators accepted small down payments d) the frontier was pacified with the defeat of the Indians e) the construction of railroad lines as far west as the Mississippi River
e
32. One of the demands made by the West to help it grow was a) sound money b) a stronger Bank of the U.S. c) cheap money d) the closing of "wildcat" banks e) higher land prices to gain more revenue for the territories
c
33. When the House of Representatives passed the Tallmadge Amendment in response to Missouri's request for admission to the Union, the South thought that the amendment a) would threaten the sectional balance b) might keep alive the institution of slavery c) would slow the growth of the West d) would silence the abolitionists e) would keep Main out of the Union
a
34. The first state entirely west of the Mississippi River to be carved out of the Louisiana Territory was a) Kansas b) Louisiana c) Texas d) Arkansas e) Missouri
e
35. As a result of the Missouri Compromise, a) there was more slave than free states in the Union b) slavery was outlawed in all states north of the forty-second parallel c) slavery was banned north of 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude in the Louisiana Territory d) Missouri was required to free its slaves when they reached full adulthood e) there were more free states than slave states in the Union
c
36. All of the following were results of the Missouri Compromise except that a) extremists in both the North and South were not satisfied b) Missouri entered the Union as a slave state c) Maine entered the Union as a free state d) Sectionalism was reduced e) The balance of power in the Senate between the North and the South in the Senate maintained
d
37. In interpreting the Constitution, John Marshall a) favored "loose construction" b) supported "strict construction" c) supported an unchanging document d) advocated state control of interstate commerce e) set few precedents
a
38. John Marshall uttered his famous legal dictum that "the power to tax involves the power to destroy" in a) Gibbons vs. Ogden b) Fletcher vs. Peck c) McCulloch vs. Maryland d) Dartmouth College vs. Woodward e) Marbury vs. Madison
c
39. In McCulloch vs. Maryland, Cohens vs. Virginia, and Gibbons vs. Ogden, Chief Justice Marshall's rulings limited the extent of a) states' rights b) judicial review c) federalism d) constitutionalism e) federal authority
a
40. People moved into the Old Northwest for all of the following reasons except a) better transportation b) the Indian threat was gone c) to achieve better social position d) to get their own democratic community e) as a haven for runaway slaves
e
41. Settlers from the South who moved into the Old Northwest territory were known as a) Yankees b) carpet baggers c) planters d) slave holders e) Butternuts
e
42. When moving to the Old Northwest, settlers from the North wanted to do all of the following except a) tame the land b) tame the people c) build roads d) build canals e) oppose increased taxes to fund their programs
e
43. John Marshall's rulings upheld a defense of property rights against public pressure in a) McCulloch vs. Maryland b) Marbury vs. Madison c) Cohens vs. Virginia d) Fletcher vs. Peck e) Gibbons vs. Ogden
d
44. The U.S.'s most successful diplomat in the Era of Good Feelings was a) John C. Calhoun b) Daniel Webster c) John Quincy Adams d) Andrew Jackson e) James Monroe
c
45. The Treaty of 1818 with England a) used the watershed of the Missouri River to define the U.S's border with Canada as far west as the Rocky Mountains b) formally recognized America's conquest of West Florida c) called for a ten-year joint occupation of the Oregon country by both American citizens and British subjects d) granted Canada exclusive use of Newfoundland fisheries e) saw the U.S. forced to give up its tariffs on British goods
c
46. Andrew Jackson's military exploits were instrumental in the U.S. gaining a) a favorable boarder with Canada from the Great Lakes to the Rocky Mountains b) possession of Florida c) joint fishing rights in Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland d) naval limitations on the Great Lakes e) gaining control of eastern Texas
b
47. Spain sold Florida to the U.S. because it a) wanted to help America to become a rival to Britain b) could not defend the area and would lose it in any case c) received America's promise to give up claims to Oregon d) was pulling out of the Western Hemisphere e) decided to concentrate its efforts in Mexico
b
48. Britain opposed Spain's reestablishing its authority in Latin American countries that had successfully revolted because a) Britain had now allied itself with France b) Britain had great sympathy toward democratic revolutions c) the U.S. had asked for such a policy d) the ports of these nations were now open to lucrative trade e) it waned to take control of these nations
d
49. The doctrine of non-colonization in the Monroe Doctrine was a) applicable only to Central and South America b) a response to the apparent designs of the Russians in Alaska and Oregon c) included in the doctrine only over the opposition of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams d) mostly a symbolic gesture of good will to the Latin American republics e) aimed at British efforts to gain control over Cuba
b
50. At the same time it was issued, the Monroe Doctrine was a) incapable of being enforced by the U.S. b) greeted with enthusiasm and gratitude in South America c) universally acclaimed in Britain as a great act of statesmanship d) welcomed with relief by European powers who favored British power in the Western Hemisphere e) opposed by the Whig party
a
51. Latin America's reaction to the Monroe Doctrine can best be described as a) enthusiastic b) fearful of the U.S. c) unconcerned or unimpressed d) relying on Britain to void it e) none of the above
c
52. The Russo-American Treaty of 1824 fixed the southernmost limits of Russian occupation of North America at a) 54 degrees, 40 minutes b) 36 degrees, 30 minutes c) the forty-second parallel d) the forty-ninth parallel e) the fifty-first parallel
a
53. The Monroe Doctrine was a) a striking new departure in American foreign policy b) quickly codified into international law c) a binding pledge on each subsequent administration d) an expression of the illusion of deepening American isolationism form world affairs e) a commitment by the U.S. to internationalism
d
Ch 13
...
1. In the 1820s and the 1830s one issue that greatly raised the political stakes was a) economic prosperity b) the Peggy Eaton affair c) a lessening of political party organizations d) the demise of the Whig Party e) slavery
e
2. The new two party political system that emerged in the 1830s and 1840s a) divided the nation further b) was seen at the time as a weakening of democracy c) resulted in the Civil War d) fulfilled the wishes of the founding fathers e) became an important part of the nation's checks and balances
e
3. In the 1820s and 1830s the public's attitude regarding political parties a) grew more negative b) saw little change from the early years of our nation c) reinforced the belief of the Era of Good Feelings d) accepted the sometimes wild contentiousness of political life e) none of the above
d
4. By the 1840s new techniques of politicking included all of the following except a) the use of banners b) free drinks c) parades d) baby kissing e) deference
ignore
5. By the 1840s voter participation in the presidential election reached a) nearly 50 percent b) 25 percent c) 40 percent d) 15 percent e) nearly 80 percent
e
6. Match each individual below with the correct description. A. Andrew Jackson 1. was vice president on the ticket of B. Henry Clay two candidates in 1824 C. John C. Calhoun 2. received more popular votes than D. William Crawford any other candidate in 1824 3. was eliminated as a candidate when the election of 1824 went into the H of Reps a. A-2, B-3, C-1 b. A-2, B-1, D-3 c. B-1, C-3, D-2 d. A-3, C-2, D-1 e. A-1, B-2, D-3
a
7. The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when a) no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College b) William Crawford suffered a stroke and was forced to drop out of the race c) the House was forced to do so by "King Caucus" d) Henry Clay, as Speaker of the House, made the request e) widespread voter fraud was discovered
a
8. John Quincy Adams, elected president in 1825, was charged by his political opponents with having struck a "corrupt bargain" when he appointed _________________ to become _________________. a) John C. Calhoun, vice president b) William Crawford, chief justice of the U.S. c) Henry Clay, secretary of state d) Daniel Webster, secretary of state e) John Eaton, secretary of the navy
c
9. As President, John Quincy Adams a) was more successful than as secretary of state b) adjusted to the New Democracy c) was one of the least successful presidents in American history d) put many of his supporters on the federal payroll e) was successful in getting his programs enacted into law
c
10. John Quincy Adams could be described as a) an excellent politician b) a man who sought popular support c) a politician with great tact d) possessing almost non of the arts of the politician e) a man of limited intelligence
d
11. John Quincy Adams' weaknesses as president included all of the flowing except a) a deep nationalist view b) only one-third of the voters voted for him c) he was tactless d) his sarcastic personality e) his firing good office holders to appoint his own people
e
12. Andrew Jackson's political philosophy was based on his a) support of a strong central government b) advocacy of the American System c) suspicion of the federal government d) opposition to the old antifederalist ideals e) family's economic status
c
13. The purpose behind the spoils system was a) to press those with experience into governmental service b) to make politics a sideline and not a full-time business c) to reward political supporters with public office d) to reverse the trend of rotation in office e) the widespread encouragement of a bureaucratic office-holding class
c
14. The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in a) a clean sweep of federal job holders b) the replacement of insecurity by security in employment c) the destruction of the personalized political machine d) the appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs e) the same actions of those taken by John Quincy Adams
d
15. The people who proposed the exceptionally high rates of the Tariff of 1828 were a) supporters of John Quincy Adams b) abolitionists c) ardent supporters of Andrew Jackson d) Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun e) southern plantation owners
c
16. The section of the U.S. most hurt by the Tariff of 1828 was a) New England b) the West c) the Southwest d) the South e) the middle states
d
17. Southerners feared the Tariff of 1828 because a) it would hurt their manufacturing sector b) they believed that the federal power this bill represented could be sued to suppress slavery c) it might hurt Andrew Jackson's political career d) they were convinced that it would destroy the American woolen industry e) it could damage the chances of he American System's success
b
18. John C. Calhoun's "South Carolina Exposition" was an argument for a) secession b) protective tariffs c) majority rule d) states' rights e) trade with New England
d
19. The "nullification crisis" of 1832 -1833 erupted over a) banking policy b) internal improvements c) tariff policy d) public land sales e) Indian policy
c
20. The strong regional support for the Tariff of 1833 came from a) the South b) New England c) the middle Atlantic states d) the West e) the frontier
a
21. The Force Bill of 1833 provided that a) the Congress could sue the military for Indian removal b) the Congress would employ the navy to stop smuggling c) the President could use the army to collect excise taxes d) the military could force citizens to track down runaway slaves e) the President could use the army and navy to collect federal tariff duties
e
22. The person most responsible for defusing the tariff controversy that began in 1828 was a) Andrew Jackson b) John C. Calhoun c) John Quincy Adams d) Daniel Webster e) Henry Clay
e
23. The nullification crisis of 1833 resulted in a clear-cut victory for a) South Carolina b) Andrew Jackson and the Union c) States' rights d) neither Andrew Jackson nor the nullifiers e) the industrialists
d
24. In response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1828, Andrew Jackson a) hanged several of the nullifiers b) dispatched modest naval and military forces to the state while preparing a larger army c) asked Henry Clay for help d) said nothing about nullification e) sought help from the Supreme Court
b
25. The nullification crisis started by South Carolina over the Tariff of 1828 ended when a) Andrew Jackson used the court system to force compliance b) the federal army crushed all resistance c) Congress used the provisions of the Force Bill d) Congress passed the compromise Tariff of 1833 e) South Carolina took over the collection of tariffs
d
26. Andrew Jackson's administration supported the removal of Native Americans from the eastern states because a) the Indians assimilated too easily into white society b) the Supreme Court ruled in favor of this policy c) whites wanted the Indians' lands d) Georgia and Florida tried to protect the Indians and their lands e) they continued their attacks on white settlements
c
27. In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following except a) recognize the tribes as separate nations b) argue that Indians could not be assimilated into the larger society c) try to civilize them d) trick them into ceding land to whites e) promise to acquire land only through formal treaties
b
28. In an effort to assimilate themselves into white society , the Cherokees did all of the following except a) adopt a system of settled agriculture b) develop a written constitution c) become cotton planters d) refuse to won slaves e) develop a notion of private property
d
29. The policy of the Jackson administration toward the eastern Indian tribes was a) a war of genocide b) gradual assimilation c) forced removal d) federal protection form state governments e) to encourage them to preserve their traditional culture
c
30. Andrew Jackson and his supporters disliked the Bank of the United States for all of the following reasons except that it a) minted gold and silver coins but issued no paper money b) controlled much of the nation's gold and silver c) was a private institution d) foreclosed on many western farms e) put public service first, not profits
e
31. Andrew Jackson made all of the following charges against the Bank of the U.S. except that a) the bank was anti-western b) it was controlled by an elite moneyed aristocracy c) the bank was autocratic and tyrannical d) it refused to lend money to politicians e) profit, not public service, was its first priority
d
32. One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the U.S. was a) its officers' awareness of the bank's responsibilities to society b) its preservation of the public trust c) its promotion of economic expansion by making credit abundant d) its issuance of depreciated paper money e) that it loaned money to western farmers
c
33. While in existence, the second Bank of the U.S. a) was the depository of the funds of the nations government b) irresponsibly inflated the national currency by issuing federal bank notes c) limited economic growth by extending public credit d) forced an ever-increasing number of bank failures e) did little to help the economy
a
34. Andrew Jackson's veto of the re-charter of the bill for the Bank of the U.S. was a) the first presidential veto b) a major expansion of presidential veto power c) unconstitutional d) overturned by a two-thirds vote in Congress e) supported by the Anti-Mason party
b
35. Andrew Jackson based his veto on the re-charter bill for the Bank of the U.S. on a) constitutional grounds b) advice from Henry Clay c) the Supreme Court's McCulloch vs. Maryland decision d) the fact that he found the bill harmful to the nation e) all of the above
d
36. The Anti-Masonic party of 1832 appealed to a) the supporters of Andrew Jackson b) American suspicions of secret societies c) those who wished to keep the government from meddling in social and economic life d) people opposed the growing political power of evangelical Protestants e) supporters of the American System
b
37. Innovations in the election of 1832 included a) direct election of the president b) adoption of written party platforms c) election of the president by the House of Representatives d) presidential nominations of "favorite sons" by state legislatures e) abandonment of party conventions
b
38. One of the main reasons that Jackson decided to weaken the Bank of the U.S. after the 1832 presidential election was a) his fear that Nicholas Biddle might try to manipulate the bank to force its re-charter b) his desire to halt the rising inflation rate that the bank had created before 1832 c) his desire to fight the Specie Circular, which hurt the West d) that he lost money he had invested in it e) all of the above
a
39. Supporters of the Whig party included all of the following except a) backers of the American System b) backers of southern states' rights c) large northern industrialists d) many evangelical Protestants e) opponents of public education
e
40. The "cement" that held the Whig party together in its formative days was a) hatred of Andrew Jackson b) support of the American System c) opposition to the Anti-Masonic party d) the desire for a strong president e) opposition to the tariff
a
41. The Whigs hoped to win the 1836 election by a) supporting Henry Clay b) using smear tactics c) forcing the election into the House of Representatives d) emphasizing personality over issues e) outspending their opponents
c
42. The Panic of 1837 was caused by all of the flowing except a) rampant speculation b) the Bank War c) financial problems abroad d) failure of whet crops e) taking the country off the gold standard
e
43. Americans moved into Texas a) when invited by the Spanish government b) after an agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin c) upon Sam Huston's defeat of General Santa Anna d) to spread Protestantism e) after the Battle of San Jacinto
b
44. The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican-controlled Texas clashed over all of the following issues except a) slavery b) immigration c) allegiance to Spain d) local rights e) Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas
c
45. Texans won their independence as a result of the victory over Mexican armies at the Battle of a) Santa Anna b) Goliad c) the Alamo d) San Jacinto e) the Rio Grande
d
46. Texas gained its independence with a) help from Britain b) no outside assistance c) help form Americans d) the blessing of the Mexican government e) help from the French
c
47. Spanish authorities allowed Moses Austin to settle in Texas because a) they believed that Austin and his settlers might be able to civilize the territory b) they believed that the militarily powerful Austin would otherwise have taken the land by force c) Spanish control of the territory was a subject of a dispute between Spain and the U.S. d) Spain planned to sell the land to the U.S. e) He paid them a sizeable sum of money
a
48. One reason for the Anglo-Texan rebellion against Mexican rule was that a) the Mexicans opposed slavery b) the Mexican government refused to allow the "Old Three Hundred" to purchase land c) the Anglo-Texans wanted to break away from a government that had grown too authoritarian d) the Anglo-Texans objected to the Mexican government's execution of Stephen Austin e) the Mexicans tried to establish slavery among the Americans
c
49. President Jackson and Van Buren hesitated to extend recognition to and to annex the new Texas Republic because a) Texans did not want to be annexed to the U.S. b) Antislavery groups in the U.S. opposed the expansion of slavery c) They were old political opponents to the Texas president, Sam Houston d) Public opinion in the U.S. opposed annexation e) The feared war with Mexico's ally, Spain
b
50. Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from a) New England b) the South and the Southwest c) the Old Northwest d) the middle Atlantic states e) the Ohio Territory
b
51. The "Tippecanoe" in the Whigs' 1840 campaign slogan was a) Daniel Webster b) Martin Van Buren c) William Henry Harrison d) Nicholas Biddle e) Henry Clay
c
52. William Henry Harrison, the Whig party's presidential candidate in 1840, was a) a true "common man" b) a very effective chief executive c) made to look like a poor western farmer d) born in a log cabin e) the first military officer to become president
c
53. Both the Democratic party and the Whig party a) favored a renewed national bank b) supported federal restraint in social and economic affairs c) were mass-based political parties d) clung to states' rights policies e) reared the rise of the Anti-Masonic party
c
54. The two political parties of the Jacksonian era tended to a) promote sectionalism over nationalism b) take radical and extreme positions on issues c) take similar positions on issues such as banking d) be socially and geographically diverse e) be socially exclusive but geographically diverse
d
Chp. 1
...
1. The European explorers who followed Columbus to North America a) intended to found a new nation b) continued to view themselves as Europeans c) did not consider America as the western rim of the European world d) no longer saw themselves as subjects of European kings e) saw little difference in their lives in America and their lives in Europe.
B
2. The colonists who ultimately embraced the vision of America as an independent nation had in common all of the following characteristics except a) the desire to create an agricultural society b) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of royal authority c) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of official religion d) an unwillingness to subjugate others e) learning to live lives unfettered by the tyrannies of social hierarchies
D
3. The ideals that the colonists cherished as synonymous with American life included reverence for all of the following except a) individual liberty b) self-government c) opposition to slavery d) religious tolerance e) economic opportunity '
C
4. By the 1770s which of the following issues helped bring about a crisis of imperial authority? a) trade relations b) slavery c) few colonists clung to any hope of accommodation with Great Britain d) the coronation of a new king e) the rise to power of radical patriots in the American colonies
A
5. The existence of a single original continent has been proved by the presence of a) similar mountain ranges on the various continents b) the discovery of nearly identical species of fish in long-separated freshwater lakes of various continents c) the discovery of marsupials on the various continents d) the continued shifting of the earth's crust e) all of the above
B
6. Which of the following mountain ranges was probably created before the continental separation approximately 350 million years ago? a) the Rockies b) the Sierra Nevada c) the Cascades d) the Coast Range e) the Appalachians
E
7. Which of the following was not a feature created in North America ten thousand years ago when the glaciers retreated? a) the Great Lakes b) the Great Salt Lake c) a mineral-rich desert d) thousands of shallow depressions which formed lakes e) the Grand Canyon
E
8. The Great Ice Age accounted for the origins of North America's human history because a) it exposed a land bridge connecting Eurasia with North America b) the glacial withdrawal allowed migration from South America c) the glacial withdrawal formed freshwater lakes that supported life d) when it ended European migration to the west became possible e) i9t prevented the migration of dangerous animals from the Bering isthmus
A
9. Most likely the first Americans were a) Vikings from Scandinavia b) Spanish explorers of the fifteenth century c) People who crossed the land bridge from Eurasia to North America d) Portuguese sailors of Prince Henry the Navigator e) refugees from Africa
C
10. In 1492, when Europeans arrived in the Americas, the total of the two continents' populations was perhaps a) 20 million b) 54 million c) 50 million d) 4 million e) 200 million
B
11. Some of the more advanced Native American cultures did all of the following except a) engage in significant ocean voyages of discovery b) establish large, bustling cities c) make strikingly accurate astronomical observations d) study mathematics e) carry on commerce
A
12. The size and sophistication of native America civilizations in Mexico and South America can be attributed to a) Spanish influences b) their way of life based on hunting and gathering c) the development of agriculture d) influences brought by early settlers from Siberia e) their use of draft animals and the wheel
C
13. The crop that became the staple of life in Mexico and South America was a) wheat b) potatoes c) tobacco d) corn e) beans
D
14. Native American (Indian) civilization was least highly developed in a) North America b) Mexico c) Central America d) Peru e) Latin America
A
15. One of the main factors that enabled Europeans to conquer native North Americans with relative ease was a) the pacifistic nature of the native North Americans b) the settled agricultural societies of North America c) the absence of dense concentrations of population or complex nation-states in North America d) the use of native guides e) all of the above
C
16. At the time of the European colonization of North America the number of Indian tribes was estimated at approximately a) 100 b) 500 c) 1,000 d) 50 e) 200
E
17. The development of "three sister" farming on the southeast Atlantic seaboard a) lead to the dominance of the potato b) enabled the Anasazis to prosper c) ultimately failed to produce adequate amounts of food d) was attributed to three young women of the Cherokee peoples e) produced a rich diet that led to high population densities
E
18. Before the arrival of Columbus, most native peoples in North America a) lived in large communities b) were more advanced than those in South America c) lived in small, scattered, and impermanent settlements d) populated the greater part of the continent e) relied on horses for transportation
C
19. The Iroquois Confederacy was able to menace its Native American and European neighbors because of a) its military alliance, sustained by political and organizational skills b) the Iroquois warriors' skill with Europeans' muskets c) the scattered nature of the Iroquois settlements, which made it difficult for their enemies to defeat them d) the alliance with the Aztecs and Incas e) its use of new weapons
A
20. Men in the more settled agricultural groups in North America performed all of the following except a) hunting b) gathering fuel c) tending crops d) clearing fields for planting e) fishing
C
21. The early voyages of the Scandinavian seafarers did not result in permanent settlement in North America because a) the Native Americans drove them out b) the area in which they landed could not support a large population c) no nation-state yearning to expand supported these ventures d) British adventurers defeated the Scandinavians in 1066 e) the settlers died of disease
C
22. The Christian crusaders were indirectly responsible for the discovery of America because they a) were victorious over the Muslims b) brought back news of valuable Far Eastern spices, drugs, and silk c) succeeded in establishing improved business relations between Muslims and Christians d) returned with captured Muslim maps showing the North and South American continents e) developed better navigational devices
B
23. Europeans wanted to discover a new, shorter route to eastern Asia in order to a) break the hold that Muslim merchants had on trade with Asia b) reduce the price of goods from Asia c) gain more profits for themselves d) reduce the time it took to transport goods e) all of the above
E
24. Before the middle of the 15th century, sub-Saharan Africa had remained remote and mysterious to Europeans because a) there was little of value there for them b) sea travel down the African coast had been virtually impossible c) Islamic societies prevented Europe from making inroads there d) they did not know that it existed e) they feared the people who lived there
B
25. In the last half of the 15th century some forty thousand Americans were forced into slavery by Portugal and Spain to a) work on plantations in Africa b) establish plantations in North America c) establish plantations in South America d) help pay for the gold they took e) work on plantations on the Atlantic sugar islands
E
26. The origins of the modern plantation system can be found in the a) American South b) Arab slave trade c) Portuguese slave trade d) European feudal system e) African slave system
C
27. Spain was united into a single nation-state when a) it was invaded by Portugal in the late 15th century b) Christopher Columbus returned with news of his discovery of the New World c) Prince Henry the Navigator came to the throne d) the African Moors were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula e) Ferdinand and Isabella were overthrown
D
28. The stage was set for a cataclysmic shift in the course of history when a) Europeans clamored for more and cheaper products from Asia b) Africa was established as a source of slave labor c) the Portuguese demonstrated the feasibility of long range ocean navigation d) the Renaissance nurtured a spirit of optimism and adventure e) all of the above
E
29. In an effort to reach the Indies, Spain looked westward because a) Portugal controlled the African coast b) the Pope granted Spain the right to sail this route c) Muslims blocked the sea route d) the Moors had convinced them to do so e) all of the above
A
30. After his first voyage, Christopher Columbus believed that he had a) discovered a New World b) failed at what he had set out to do c) sailed to the outskirts of the East Indies d) sailed around the world e) reached the shores of Japan
C
31. Columbus called the native people in the "New World" Indians because a) that was what they called themselves b) he believed that he had skirted the rime of the "Indies" c) it was a form of the Spanish word for heathen d) the Vikings had first called them by that name e) all of the above
B
32. In the new interdependent global system that emerged after Columbus' discovery, the new world provided a) markets b) technology c) raw materials d) capital e) labor
C
33. Which of the following New World plants revolutionized the international economy? a) maize b) potatoes c) beans d) tomatoes e) all of the above
E
34. The introduction of American plants around the world resulted in a) rapid population growth in Europe b) many illnesses, caused by the new germs contained in these food-stuffs c) an African population decline d) very little change e) an increase in obese people
A
35. European contact with Native Americans led to a) the Europeans' acceptance of the horse into their culture b) the deaths of millions of Native Americans, who had little resistance to European diseases c) the introduction into the New World of such plants as potatoes, tomatoes, and beans d) an increase in the Native American population e) the use of tobacco by Native Americans
B
36. Within a century after Columbus' landfall in the New World, the Native American population was reduced by nearly a) 50 percent b) 20 percent c) 70 percent d) 90 percent e) 40 percent
D
37. European explorers introduced _________ into the New World. a) syphilis b) maize c) tobacco d) smallpox e) pumpkin
D
38. The flood of precious metal from the New World to Europe resulted in a) a price revolution that lowered consumer costs b) the growth of capitalism c) a reduced amount of trade with Asia d) more money for France and Spain but less for Italy and Holland e) little impact on the world economy
B
39. The institution of encomienda allowed the a) native people to enslave members of other tribes b) Europeans to marry Native Americans c) European governments to give Indians to colonists if they promised to Christianize them d) governments of Europe to abolish the practice of Indian slavery and to establish African slavery e) Europeans to establish an economy based on capitalism
C
40. Men became conquistadores because they wanted to a) gain God's favor by spreading Christianity b) escape dubious pasts c) seek adventure, as the heroes of classical antiquity had done d) satisfy their desire for gold e) all of the above
E
41. The Aztec chief Montezuma allowed Cortes to enter the capital of Tenochtitlan because a) Cortes' army was so powerful b) Montezuma believed that Cortes was the god Quetzalcoatl c) there was little in the city of interest to the Spanish d) he was told to by the gods e) all of the above
B
42. In which of the following is the explorer mismatched with the area he explored? a) Coronado - New Mexico and Arizona b) Ponce de Leon - Mississippi River Valley c) Cortes - Mexico d) Pizarro - Peru e) Columbus - Caribbean islands
B
43. Spain began to fortify and settle its North American border lands in order to a) protect its Central and South American domains from encroachments by England and France b) gain control of Canada c) gain more slaves d) find a passage to the Pacific Ocean e) look for gold in Florida
A
44. As a result of Pope's Rebellion in 1680, a) the Pueblo Indians destroyed every Catholic church in the province of New Mexico b) the Pueblo Indians were destroyed c) the Spanish destroyed Pueblo temples and erected Catholic churches on those sites d) the Spanish missionaries suppressed native religions e) the French gained control of New Mexico
A
45. The treatment of the Native Americans by the Spanish conquistadores can be described as a) at times brutal and exploitative b) firm but fair c) unmotivated by greed d) scornful of intermarriage e) leaving little of Spanish culture
A
Chp. 2
...
1. The settlement founded in the early 1600s that was most important for the United States was a) Santa Fe b) Quebec c) Jamestown d) Massachusetts Bay e) Saint Augustine
c
2. The English treatment of the Irish can best be described as a) firm but fair b) better than their treatment of any English subjects c) the prime example of salutary neglect d) violent and unjust e) supportive of their Catholic faith
d
3. Match each individual on the left with the correct description: A. Francis Drake 1. "sea dog" who plundered the treasure B. Walter Raleigh ships of the Spanish Main C. Humphrey Gilbert 2. adventurer who tried by failed to establish a colony in Newfoundland 3. explorer whose voyage in 1498 established England's territorial claims in the New World 4. courtier whose colony at Roanoke Island was mysteriously abandoned in the 1580s 5. the colonizer who helped establish tobacco as a cash crop in Georgia a. A-2, B-1, C-3 b. A-1, B-4, C-2 c. A-3, B-2, C-1 d. A-4, B-3, C-2 e. A-5, B-4, C-1
b
4. Spain's dreams of empire began to fade with the a) War of Spanish Succession b) defeat of the Spanish Armada c) loss of Brazil d) Treaty of Tordesillas e) conquest of Mexico
b
5. The first English attempt at colonization was in a) Newfoundland b) St. Augustine c) Jamestown d) Roanoke Island e) Massachusetts Bay
a
6. England's defeat of the Spanish Armada a) led to a Franco-Spanish alliance that prevented England from establishing its own American colonies b) allowed England to take control of Spain's American colonies c) demonstrated that Spanish Catholicism was inferior to English Protestantism d) helped to ensure England's naval dominance in the North Atlantic e) occurred despite weather conditions which favored Spain
d
7. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Reformation, (B) founding of Jamestown colony, (C) Restoration, (D) defeat of the Spanish Armada, (E) colony of Georgia founded a) A, B, C, D, E b) C, A, D, B, E c) D, A, B, C, E d) A, D, B, C, E e) E, D, A, C, B
d
8. The spirit of the English on the eve of colonization included all of the following except a) restlessness b) self-confidence c) curiosity about the unknown d) thirst for adventure e) limited patriotism
e
9. On the eve of its colonizing adventure, England possessed a) a unified national state b) a measure of religious unity c) a sense of nationalism d) a popular monarch e) all of the above
e
10. The financial means for England's first permanent colonization in America were provided by a) a joint-stock company b) a royal proprietor c) Queen Elizabeth II d) the law of primogeniture e) an expanding wool trade
a
11. All of the following provided motives for English colonization except a) unemployment b) thirst for adventure c) desire for markets d) desire for religious freedom e) need for a place to exploit slave labor
e
12. The guarantee that English settlers in the New World would retain the "rights of Englishmen" proved to be a) an empty promise b) unpopular among the settlers c) the cause of revolutions in Spain and France d) the foundation of American liberties e) a catalyst for French colonization of North America
d
13. The early years at Jamestown were mainly characterized by a) starvation, disease, and frequent Indian raids b) economic prosperity c) constant fear of Spanish invasion d) major technical advancement e) peace with the Native Americans
a
14. Despite an abundance of fish and game, early Jamestown settlers continued to starve because a) they had neither weapons nor fishing gear b) their fear of Indians prevented them from venturing too far from the town c) they wasted time looking for gold d) they lacked leaders to organize efficient hunting and fishing parties e) there were not enough gentlemen to organize the work force
c
15. Captain John Smith's role at Jamestown can best be described as a) very limited b) saving the colony from collapse c) persuading the colonists to continue their hung for gold d) worsening the colonists' relationship with the Indians e) reducing the terrible death toll
b
16. Chief Powhatan had Captain John Smith kidnapped in order to a) impress Smith with the chief's power b) demonstrate the Indian's desire for war c) punish Smith for refusing to marry Pocahontas d) hold him for a large ransom to be paid by King James e) all of the above
a
17. When Lord De La Warr took control of Jamestown in 1610, he a) halted the rapid population decline b) re-established better relations with the Indians c) brought many Irish immigrants with him d) died within a few months of his arrival e) imposed a harsh military regime on the colony
e
18. The result of the Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644 can best be described as a) halting white settlement on the frontier b) returning the Chesapeake Indians to their ancestral lands c) making peaceful coexistence possible between the European and native peoples d) ending any chance of assimilating the native peoples into Virginia society e) bringing together areas of white and Indian settlement
d
19. The native peoples of Virginia (Powhatans) succumbed to the Europeans because they a) died in large numbers from European diseases b) lacked the unity necessary to resist the well-organized whites c) could be disposed of by Europeans with no harm to the colonial economy d) were not a reliable labor source e) all of the above
e
20. As part of the change brought about in the lives of the Lakotas, they a) were forced to move to the west b) became sedentary forest dwellers c) died out d) lost their oral traditions e) became nomadic
e
21. The biggest disrupter of Native American life was a) horses b) loss of culture c) disease d) fire amrs e) the formation of new tribes
c
22. The Indians that had the greatest opportunity to adapt to the European incursion were a) those living on the Atlantic seaboard b) those in Florida c) inland tribes such as the Algonquians d) those in Latin America e) the Pueblos
c
23. After the purchases of slaves in 1619 by Jamestown settlers, additional purchases of Africans were few because a) they were poor workers b) many colonists were morally opposed to slavery c) their labor was not needed d) indentured servants refused to work with them e) they were too costly
e
24. The cultivation of tobacco in Jamestown resulted in all of the following except a) the destruction of the soil b) a great demand for controlled labor c) soaring prosperity in the colony d) diversification of the colony's economy e) the broad-acred plantation system
d
25. The summoning of Virginia's House of Burgesses marked an important precedent because it a) failed b) was abolished by King James I c) was the first of many miniature parliaments to convene in America d) forced King James I to revoke the colony's royal charter and grant it self-government e) allowed the seating of non-voting Native Americans
c
26. A major reason for the founding of the Maryland colony was to a) establish a defensive buffer against Spanish colonies in the South b) create a refuge for the Catholics c) help the Protestants d) allow Lord Baltimore to keep all the land for himself e) repudiate the feudal way of life
b
27. At the outset, Lord Baltimore allowed some religious toleration in the Maryland colony because he a) hoped to secure freedom of worship for his fellow Catholics b) was a committed atheist c) wanted the colony's Jews to be able to practice their faith d) hoped to maintain a Catholic majority e) was asked to do so by the King
a
28. Maryland's Act of Toleration a) was issued by Lord Baltimore b) abolished the death penalty c) gave freedom only to Catholics d) protected Jews and atheists e) actually sanctioned less religious toleration than what previously existed
e
29. Tobacco was considered a poor man's crop because a) it could be produced easily and quickly b) it was smoked by the lower class c) the poor were sued to plant and harvest it d) it could be purchased at a low price e) it required complicated processing
a
30. Sugar was called a rich man's crop for all of the following reasons except that it a) had to be planted extensively b) required the clearing of much land c) could be purchased only by the wealthy d) required an elaborate refining process e) was a capital-intense business
c
31. Under the Barbados slave code of 1661, slaves were a) guaranteed the right to marry b) denied the most fundamental rights c) protected from the most vicious punishments d) given the opportunity to purchase their freedom e) assigned specific monetary value
b
32. The statutes governing slavery in the North American colonies originated in a) England b) Virginia c) Brazil d) Barbados e) Spain
d
33. One of the earliest and most important exports from the Carolinas was a) tobacco b) naval stores c) fish d) Indian slaves e) corn
d
34. The colony of South Carolina prospered a) by developing close economic ties with the British West Indies b) only after Georgia was established c) as a result of the importation of Indian slaves d) because of its thriving shipbuilding industry e) under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell
a
35. Two major exports of the Carolinas were a) rice and Indian slaves b) sugar and corn c) tobacco and furs d) black slaves and cotton e) sugar and cotton
a
36. Some Africans became especially valuable as slaves in the Carolinas because they a) had experience working in dry, desert-like areas b) were experienced in rice cultivation c) were knowledgeable regarding cotton production d) exhibited skill as soldiers e) were skilled craftsmen
b
37. The busiest seaport in the southern colonies was a) St. Augustine b) Jamestown c) Savannah d) Baltimore e) Charleston
e
38. North Carolina and Rhode Island were similar in that they a) were very aristocratic b) exercised no independent prerogative c) depended on trade with Spain d) were the tow most democratic colonies e) were founded by Roger Williams
d
39. The inhabitants of North Carolina were regarded by their neighbors as a) hostile b) too submissive to authority c) irreligious d) far too friendly with Spain e) too Catholic
c
40. The attitude of Carolinians toward Indians can best be described as a) friendly b) neutral c) hostile d) promoting interracial marriage e) none of the above
c
41. The colony of Georgia was founded a) by a joint-stock company b) as a defensive buffer for South Carolina c) by eight proprietors chosen by Charles II d) in the seventeenth century e) by King George
b
42. Georgia's founders were determined to a) conquer Florida and add it to Britain's empire b) create a haven for people imprisoned for debt c) keep Georgia for Catholics d) restrict the colony to British citizens e) establish slavery
b
43. All of the following European imports threatened the Iroquois' existence except a) religion b) whiskey c) diseases d) muskets e) all threatened their existence
a
44. The purpose of the periodic "mourning wars" was a) to avenge the deaths of Huron warriors b) to stop the spread of European settlements c) the result of diplomatic failures among the Indians d) to break up the Iroquois Confederacy e) the large-scale adoption of captives and refugees
e
45. The Iroquois leader who helped his nation revive its old customs was a) Powhatan b) Handsome Lake c) Pocahontas d) De La Warr e) Pontiac
b
46. Georgia grew very slowly for all of the following reasons except a) its unhealthy climate b) early restrictions on black slavery c) Spanish attacks d) John Oglethorpe's leadership e) lack of a plantation economy
d
47. Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia were similar in that they were all a) economically dependent on the export of a staple crop b) proprietary colonies c) founded after the restoration of Charles II to the throne d) founded as refugees for persecuted religious sects in England e) able to live in peace with the Native Americans
a
48. By 1750, all the southern plantation colonies a) based their economies on the production of staple crops for export b) practiced slavery c) provided tax support for the Church of England d) had few large cities e) all of the above
e
49. Arrange the following events in chronological order: the founding of (A) Georgia, (B) the Carolinas, (C) Virginia, (D) Maryland a) A, C, B, D b) B, D, C, A c) C, D, B, A d) D, C, B, A e) C, B, A, D
c
Chp. 3
...
1. Colonists in both the North and the South established differences in all of the following areas except a) patterns of settlement b) economies c) political systems d) values e) allegiance to England
e
2. Match each item on the left with the correct definition: A. predestination 1. belief that from the moment of creation some so B. conversion souls were "saved" and others "damned" C. antinomianism 2. belief that faith, good works, and repentance could earn salvation 3. the sign of receipt of God's free gift of saving grace 4. belief that those whom God had marked for salvation need not obey secular laws a) A-1, B-3, C-2 b) A-3, B-2, C-1 c) A-1, B-3, C-4 d) A-4, B-1, C-3 e) A-2, B-4, C-3
c
3. In Calvinist thought the "conversion" was a) something experienced as a group b) earned by a person's good works c) a Catholic heresy d) an event that freed a person from having to live a holy life e) an intense, personal experience when God revealed an individual's heavenly destiny
e
4. In Puritan doctrine, the "elect" were also referred to as a) Separatists b) "patroons" c) "visible saints" d) Pilgrims e) Anglicans Page 2.
c
5. Henry VIII aided the entrance of Protestant beliefs into England when he a) allowed Martin Luther to journey to England b) broke England's ties with the Catholic church c) removed himself as the head of the Church of England d) ordered John Calvin to got to Switzerland e) supported the Puritans
b
6. King James I opposed the Separatists who wanted to break away entirely from the Church of England because he a) realized that if his subjects could defy him in spiritual behavior, they could defy him as a political leader b) strongly believed in the concept of "visible saints" c) never understood the political implications of their actions d) believed that they were turning their backs on the true Calvinist faith e) was a strong Catholic
a
7. The Separatists migrated from England to Holland to the New World in order to a) avoid the coming war with France b) gain wealth c) establish a new nation d) practice their purified Protestantism e) escape the jurisdiction of the Virginia Company
d
8. Match the colony on the left with its associated item. A. Plymouth 1. General Court B. Connecticut 2. Mayflower Compact C. Massachusetts Bay 3. Fundamental Orders 4. patroonships a) A-3, B-2, C-4 b) A-2, B-3, C-1 c) A-4, B-1, C-2 d) A-1, B-4, C-3 e) A-3, B-2, C-1
b
9. The Mayflower Compact can be best described as a) an agreement to follow the dictates of Parliament b) a document which allowed women limited participation in government c) a constitution d) a complex agreement to form an oligarchy e) a promising step toward genuine self-government
e
10. The leader that helped the Pilgrims survive was a) John Smith b) John Winthrop c) Roger Williams d) William Laud e) William Bradford
e
11. The historical significance of the Pilgrims of Plymouth Bay lies in their a) numerical size b) economic power c) moral and spiritual qualities d) unique charter, which permitted self-government e) unwillingness to merge with the Puritans in Massachusetts Bay
c
12. Unlike Separatists, Puritans a) advocated strict separation of church and state b) practiced passive resistance to oppression c) remained members of the Church of England d) were Calvinists e) rejected belief in witchcraft
c
13. Initially, the Massachusetts Bay Colony enjoyed all of the following advantages except that of a) being a well-equipped expedition b) starting off on a larger scale than any other English colony c) receiving many fairly prosperous and educated immigrants d) receiving a majority of the Puritans coming to the New World e) a shared purpose among the first settlers
d
14. Puritan doctrine included acceptance of a) antinomianism b) the Pope's supremacy c) the idea of a covenant with God d) the doctrine of good works e) the King as the final religious authority
c
15. With the franchise in Massachusetts extended to all adult males who belonged to Puritan congregations, the proportion of qualified voters in this colony was compared to England was a) larger b) somewhat smaller c) about the same d) not known e) a great deal smaller Page 4.
a
16. In Massachusetts, clergymen a) could be elected to political office b) could not be fired by their congregations c) were not allowed to marry d) were barred from holding formal political office e) could not have children
d
17. Puritan religious beliefs allowed all of the following except a) drinking alcohol b) eating plentifully c) challenging religious authority d) making love discreetly e) singing songs
c
18. Among the Puritans, it was understood that a) they would establish democratic government in America b) clergymen would hold the most powerful political office c) the purpose of government was to enforce God's laws d) all adult white male landowners could vote for political leaders e) women could become religious leaders
c
19. People who flouted the authority of the Puritan clergy in Massachusetts Bay were subject to which of the following punishments? a) fines b) floggings c) banishment d) death e) all of the above
e
20. According to Anne Hutchinson, a dissenter in Massachusetts Bay, a) predestination was not a valid idea b) the truly saved need not bother to obey the laws of God or man c) antinomianism was heresy d) direct revelation from God was impossible e) a person needs to only obey the law of God
b
21. As the founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams a) established religious freedom for all but Jews and Catholics b) supported some types of special privileges c) established complete religious freedom for all d) demanded attendance at worship e) became a very wealthy man Page 5.
c
22. Roger Williams' beliefs included all of the following excepta) breaking away from the Church of England b) challenging the legality of Massachusetts Bay's charter c) condemning the taking of Indian land without fair compensation d) denying the authority of the civil government to regulate religious matters e) demanding oaths regarding religious beliefs
e
23. As a colony, Rhode Island became known for a) its poor treatment of Indians b) unified religious beliefs c) support of special privilege d) never having secured a charter from Parliament e) individualist and independent attitudes
e
24. Settlers of the Connecticut River colony developed a document known as the Fundamental Orders, which a) marked the beginning of the colony of Connecticut b) established a regime democratically controlled by "substantial" citizens c) set up a military alliance in New England d) pleased King Charles I e) supported a government controlled by all people
b
25. The city of New Haven was settled by a) supporters of Charles II b) refugees from Rhode Island c) supporters of religious freedom d) Germans e) Puritans
e
26. Unlike other English voyagers to the New World, the Puritans a) transplanted entire communities b) lost most of their Old World habits c) immigrated as individuals rather than in groups d) came only for religious reasons e) renounced their membership in the Church of England
a
27. After the Pequot War, Puritan efforts to convert Indians to Christianity can best be described as a) vigorous but successful b) more zealous than those made by Catholics, but still unsuccessful c) filling "praying towns" with hundreds of Indians d) feeble e) very successful Page 6.
d
28. The New England Indians' only hope for resisting English encroachment lay in a) acquiring English muskets b) enlisting the aid of the French c) intertribal unity against the English d) building fortifications e) allying themselves with the Dutch
c
29. King Philip's War resulted in a) the lasting defeat of New England's Indians b) France's moving into Canada c) the formation of a powerful alliance among the Indians to resist the English d) the last victory for the Indians e) none of the above
a
30. During the early years of colonization in the New World, England a) closely controlled its colonies b) maintained an excellent relationship with the Indians c) paid little attention to its colonies d) made sure all the colonies had royal charters e) began the importation of African slaves in large numbers
c
31. The New England Confederation a) included all of the New England colonies b) was designed to bolster colonial defense c) led the America colonies to seek independence from England d) was created by the English government to streamline its administration e) was an economic and trade alliance
b
32. The Dominion of New England a) included all of the New England colonies b) was created by the English government to streamline the administration of the colonies c) was designed to bolster colonial defense d) eventually included New York and east and west New Jersey e) all of the above
e
33. As the head of Dominion of New England, Sir Edmund Andros was all of the following except a) an able military man b) conscientious c) a Puritan d) tactless e) a leader who restricted the press Page 7.
c
34. As a result of England's Glorious Revolution, a) the Dominion of New England collapsed b) Sir Edmond Andros gained control over Massachusetts c) Massachusetts regained its original charter d) opposition to English rule in the colonies subsided e) much blood was shed
a
35. As a result of Sir Edmund Andros's rule, a) the power of town meetings was curbed b) officials tried to enforce the Navigation Laws c) taxes were levied without the consent of the elected representatives d) smuggling was suppressed e) all of the above
e
36. New York was a) the best advertised of the colonies b) designed as a Quaker refuge c) originally founded by the Dutch d) a major contributor to political democracy and religious tolerance in the English colonies e) the last of the middle colonies to be established
c
37. The Dutch colony of New Netherland (later New York) was noted for a) allowing only Dutch immigrants to settler there b) its lack of enthusiasm for democratic practices c) tolerating Quakers from nearby Pennsylvania d) is support of free speech e) all of the above
b
38. New York and Pennsylvania were similar in that they both a) were established by joint-stock companies b) experienced slow population growth c) had ethnically mixed populations d) were founded as religious refuges e) had poor soil
c
39. New England Confederation regarded Dutch New Netherland as a) a welcome friend b) an enemy to be wiped out c) an easy target for Indian raids d) the next victim of New Sweden e) a trading partner
b
40. When the English gained control over New Netherland, a) the autocratic spirit survived b) democracy replaced the old autocratic system c) the colony grew quickly d) new leaders distributed land grants in a more democratic fashion e) they did so with great bloodshed
a
41. One of the traits that made Quakers unpopular in England was a) their refusal to do military service b) the high pay given their clergy c) their support of slavery d) their violent treatment of their enemies e) their refusal to hold public office
a
42. The physical growth of English New York was slowed because a) of the Indian threat b) of an unhealthy climate c) the Dutch engaged in guerilla warfare d) of the monopolistic land policies of the aristocrats e) of the French threat
d
43. Cultural contributions the Dutch made to America include all of the following except a) Easter eggs b) Santa Claus c) sauerkraut d) skating e) soccer
e
44. Pennsylvania was a) the best advertised b) the most lied about c) the slowest to attract setters d) the only one with royal colony status e) all of the above
a
45. Indian policy in early Pennsylvania can be best described as a) extremely harsh b) bad at first, but improving later c) influenced mainly by the state supported church d) benevolent e) none of the above
d
46. Economically, the colony of Pennsylvania a) got off to a very slow start b) never prospered c) received much help from New York d) became profitable very quickly e) had extensive plantations
d
47. All of the middle colonies were a) founded by proprietors b) established by joint-stock companies c) notable for their fertile soil d) intended as religious havens e) dependent on slave labor
c
48. The middle colonies were notable for their a) lack of good river transportation b) unusual degree of democratic control c) lack of industry d) status as the least "American" of the colonies e) established churches
b
49. Recently, historians have increasingly viewed the colonial period as a) one in which the Puritans have been overlooked b) one of contact and adaptation between native populations c) one in which the settlement of the Caribbean has been stressed too much d) one in which economic ambition was the main reason all colonists came e) all of the above
b
50. The section of the America colonies where there was the greatest internal conflict was a) New England b) the Deep South c) the western frontier d) the middle colonies e) the southwest
d
51. The picture of colonial America that is emerging from new scholarship is a society formed by a) encounters with native people b) European heritage c) many intertwining roots d) American heritage e) all of the above Page 10.
e
52. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) restoration of Chrles II to the English throne, (B) English Civil War, (C) Glorious Revolution, (D) Protestant Reformation. a) D, B, A, C b) C, A, B, D c) D, C, B, A d) B, C, A, D e) A, B, C, D
a
53. Arrange the following events in a chronological order: (A) great Puritan migration, (B) founding of Plymouth Colony, (C) Protestant Reformation, (D) founding of Rhode Island. a) A, B, D, C b) C, B, A, D c) C, A, B, D d) B, D, A, C e) D, A, C, B
b
54. Arrange the following in chronological order: the founding of (A) New York, (B) Massachusetts Bay, (C) Pennsylvania, (D) Plymouth a) C, B, A, D b) B, D, C, A c) A, C, D, B d) D, B, A, C e) A, C, B, D
d
Chp. 4
...
1. As the seventeenth century wore on, regional differences arose, most notably a) the use of indentured servants b) loyalty to England c) the continuing rigidity of Puritanism d) the breaking of the Atlanta economy e) slave labor
c
2. The population of the Chesapeake colonies throughout the first half of the seventeenth century was notable for its a) fast growth rate b) scarcity of women c) low death rate d) stable family life e) sizeable percentage of middle aged men
b
3. In the seventeenth century, due to a high death rate families were both few and fragile in a) New England b) the Chesapeake colonies c) the middle colonies d) Georgia e) Florida
b
4. During the seventeenth century, indentured servitude solved the labor problem in many English colonies for all of the following reasons except that a) the Indian population proved to be an unreliable work force because they died in such large numbers b) African slaves cost too much money c) In some areas families formed too slowly d) Spain had stopped sending slaves to its New World colonies e) families procreated too slowly
d
5. The "headright" system made some people very wealthy, entailed a) using Indians as forced labor b) giving land to indentured servants to get them to come to the New World c) giving the right to acquire fifty acres of land to the person paying the passage of a laborer to America d) discouraging the importation of indentured servants to America e) fiving a father's wealth to the oldest son
c
6. By 1700, the most populous colony in English America was a) Massachusetts b) Virginia c) New York d) Pennsylvania e) Maryland
b
7. Seventeenth century colonial tobacco growers usually responded to depressed prices for their crop by a) selling slaves to reduce productive labor b) selling land to reduce their volume of production c) growing more tobacco to increase their volume of production d) planting corn and wheat instead of tobacco e) releasing unneeded indentured servants early
c
8. _______________ reaped the greatest benefit from the land policies of the "headright" system. a) Indentured servants b) African slaves c) Merchant planters d) New England colonists e) Slave owners
c
9. For their labor in the colonies indentured servants received all of the following except a) passage to America b) a suit of clothes c) a few barrels of corn d) a headright e) at times a small parcel of land
d
10. English yeomen who agreed to exchange their labor temporarily in return for payment of their passage to an American colony were called a) headrights b) burgesses c) indentured servants d) slaves e) birds of passage
c
11. Throughout the greater part of the seventeenth century, the Chesapeake colonies acquired most of the labor they needed from a) African slaves b) white servants c) captured Indians d) West Indian natives e) prisoners of war
b
12. Most immigrants to the Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth century came as a) indentured servants b) slaves from Africa c) yeomen farmers d) urban artisans e) refugees from civil war in Europe
a
13. Over the course of the seventeenth century, most indentured servants a) became landowners b) devolved into slavery c) managed to escape the terms of their contracts d) faced increasingly harsh circumstances e) saw their wages increase
d
14. By the end of the seventeenth century, indentured servants who gained their freedom a) often gained great wealth as more land opened for settlement b) rarely returned to work for their masters c) almost always found high paying jobs in the cities d) had little choice but to hire themselves out for low wages to their former masters e) often returned to England
d
15. Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by a) young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land b) the planter class of Virginia c) those protesting the increased importation of African slaves d) people from Jamestown only e) the local Indians
a
16. The immediate reason for Bacon's Rebellion was a) Indian attacks on frontier settlements b) the wealthy planter class losing control of the colony c) a shortage of indentured servants d) to halt the importation of African slaves e) all of the above
a
17. As a result of Bacon's Rebellion, a) African slavery was reduced b) Planters began to look for less troublesome laborers c) Governor Berkeley was dismissed from office d) Nathaniel Bacon was named to head the Virginia militia e) Better relations developed with local Indians
b
18. The majority of African slaves coming to the New World a) went to English North America b) were delivered to South America and the West Indies c) came to New England d) were brought by the Dutch e) died before reaching their destination
b
19. After 1680, reliance on slave labor in colonial America rapidly increased because a) higher wages in England reduced the number of emigrating servants b) planters feared the growing number of landless freemen in the colonies c) the British Royal African company lost its monopoly on the slave trade in colonial America d) Americans rushed to cash in on slave trade e) all of the above
e
20. Many of the slaves who reached North America a) came from western Africa b) were originally captured by African coastal tribes and then sold to European slave traders c) were captured in southern Africa d) eventually gained their freedom e) settled in the middle colonies
a
21. For those Africans who were sold into slavery, the "middle passage" can be best described as a) the trip from the interior of Africa to the coast b) the easiest part of their journey to America c) the journey from American parts to their new homes d) the gruesome ocean voyage to America e) none of the above
d
22. The physical and social conditions of slavery were harshest in a) Maryland b) Virginia c) South Carolina d) Massachusetts e) Pennsylvania
c
23. African American contributions to American culture include all of the following except a) jazz music b) the banjo c) the guitar d) a variety of words e) bongo drums
c
24. While slavery might have begun in America for economic reasons, a) it soon became clear by 1700 that profits were down b) race was rarely an issue in relations between blacks and whites c) racial discrimination also powerfully molded the American slave system d) profit soon played a very small role e) Europe profited most from the institution
c
25. The slave society that developed in North America was one of the few slave societies in history to a) produce a new culture based entirely on African heritage b) rebel against its masters c) reduce their numbers by suicide d) develop its own techniques of growing corn and wheat e) perpetuate itself by its own natural reproduction
e
26. The slave culture that developed in America a) was derived exclusively from African roots b) rejected Christianity c) was Muslim in its religious teachings d) contained many Western elements that remained thoroughly European e) was a uniquely New World creation
e
27. Slave Christianity emphasized all of the following in their faith except a) Jesus was the Messiah who would deliver them from bondage b) God's freeing the Hebrews from slavery c) Heaven was a place where they would be reunited with their ancestors d) the concepts of humility and obedience e) using religious songs as encoded messages about escape
d
28. Compared with indentured servants, African American slaves were a) less reliable workers b) more likely to rebel c) cheaper to buy and own d) a more manageable labor force e) less expensive to buy but more expensive to keep
d
29. As slavery spread in the South, a) social differences within society narrowed b) the great plantation owners worked less c) gaps in the social structure widened d) planters tried to imitate the ways of English country gentlemen e) it also increased dramatically in New England
c
30. Most of the inhabitants of the colonial American South were a) merchant planters b) landowning small farmers c) landless farm laborers d) black slaves e) native Americans
b
31. Urban development in the colonial South a) rivaled that of New England b) kept pace with the growth of large plantations c) led to the construction of an excellent highway system d) was slow to emerge e) occurred without the development of a professional class
d
32. It was typical of colonial New England adults to a) marry early and have several children b) be unable to read and write c) arrive in New England unmarried d) die before becoming grandparents e) live alone
a
33. The New England family can best be described as a) relatively small in size due to the frequency of deaths from childbirth b) a very stable institution c) a limiting factor in the growth of the region's population d) not very close-knit e) similar to the family in the Chesapeake colonies
b
34. The special characteristics of New England's population led to the observation that these colonists "invented" a) premarital sex b) grandparents c) family life d) religious piety e) women's rights
b
35. Southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate title to their property because a) of religious beliefs b) of English tradition c) southern men frequently died young d) southern families were stable e) of a smaller number of men than women
c
36. Puritans refused to recognize a woman's separate property rights because a) of the short life span of New England women b) they worried that such rights would undercut the unity of married persons c) New England families were so rare d) there was so little land available e) of all of the above
b
37. In the seventeenth century colonial America all of the following are true regarding women except a) women had no rights as individuals b) women could not vote c) women were regarded as morally weaker than men d) a husband's power over his wife was not absolute e) abusive husbands were punished
a
38. The expansion of New England society a) proceeded in an orderly fashion b) was a rather haphazard process c) was undertaken by lone-wolf farmers on their own initiative d) took place without the approval of the colonial legislature e) led to little concern about the community as a whole
a
39. When new towns were established in New England, all of the following were true except a) a land grant was given by the legislature b) a meeting house was built c) a village green was laid out d) schools were required in towns of more than fifty families e) families did not automatically receive land
e
40. The Puritan system of congregational church government logically led to a) an authoritarian political government b) the early establishment of religious toleration c) democracy in political government d) the end of town meetings e) none of the above
c
41. Thomas Jefferson once observed that "the best school of political liberty the world ever saw" was the a) College of William and Mary b) Virginia House of Burgesses c) New England town meeting d) Chesapeake plantation system e) the English parliament
c
42. The Half-Way Covenant a) allowed full communion for all nonconverted members b) strengthened the distinction between the "elect" and all others c) brought an end to the Jeremiads of Puritan ministers d) resulted in a decrease in church members e) admitted to baptism but not full membership the unconverted children of existing members
e
43. The Salem witchcraft trials were a) a result of Roger Williams' activities b) the result of unsettled social and religious conditions in rapidly evolving Massachusetts c) caused by ergot in the Puritans' bread d) unique to the English colonies e) accusations made by the daughters of business owners
b
44. During the Salem witchcraft trials, most of those accused as witches were a) from families associated with Salem's burgeoning market economy b) from the ranks of poor families c) primarily un-Christian Indians d) women in their late teens e) from subsistence farming families
a
45. The Salem "witch hung" in 1692 a) was the largest "witch hung" in recorded history b) was the first in the English American colonies c) was opposed by the more responsible members of the clergy d) was ultimately of little consequence for those who were accused of witchcraft e) did not see anyone put to death
c
46. As a result of poor soil, all of the following conditions prevailed in New England except that a) hard work was required to make a living b) the area was less ethnically mixed than its southern neighbors c) frugality became essential to economic survival d) reliance on a single, staple crop became a necessity e) diversification in agriculture and industry were encouraged
d
47. The New England economy depended heavily on a) slave labor b) the production of many staple crops c) fishing, shipbuilding, and commerce d) tobacco e) all of the above
c
48. In contrast to the Chesapeake colonies, those in New England a) had a more diversified economy b) expanded westward in a less orderly fashion c) had a more ethnically mixed population d) were more oriented toward the individual than toward community interests e) followed the land use pattern established by the local Indians
a
49. The English justified taking land from the native inhabitants on the grounds that the Indians a) were not Christians b) wasted the earth by underutilizing its bounty c) burned woodlands d) refused to sell it e) all of the above
b
50. The combination of Calvinism, soil, and climate in New England resulted in the people there possessing which of the following qualities: a) energy b) stubbornness c) self-reliance d) resourcefulness e) all of the above
e
51. The impact of New England on the rest of the nation can best be described as a) greatly exaggerated b) generally negative c) confined primarily to New England d) extremely important e) moderately important
d
52. Compared with most seventeenth century Europeans, Americans lived in a) relative poverty b) larger cities c) affluent abundance d) a more rigid class system e) more primitive circumstances
c
53. The late seventeenth century rebellion in New York was headed by ____________, whereas that in Maryland was led by __________________. a) Nathaniel Bacon, Catholics b) William Berkeley, slaves c) Puritans, Indians d) Jacob Leisler, Protestants e) the Dutch, Catholics
d
Chp. 5
...
1. All of the following are reasons the thirteen Atlantic seaboard colonies sought independence except a) distinctive social structures b) distinctive economic structures c) distinctive political structures d) distinctive racial structures e) the appearance of a recognizably American way of life
d
2. One outstanding feature common to all of the eventually rebellious colonies was their a) relatively equal wealth b) economic organization c) similarly social structures d) rapidly growing populations e) support of religious freedom
d
3. As a result of the rapid population growth in colonial America during the 18th century, a) a momentous shift occurred in the balance of power between the colonies and the mother country b) the British government was pleased that more workers would be available to fill an increasing need for laborers in Britain c) the need for slave labor declined d) the colonists became more dependent on Britain for the goods that they needed to survive e) the British government granted greater autonomy to colonial governments
a
4. The population growth of the American colonies by 1775 is attributed mostly to a) white immigration from Europe b) the natural fertility of Native Americans c) the importation of slaves from Africa d) the influx of immigrants from Latin America e) the natural fertility of all Americans
e
5. The average age of the American colonists in 1775 was a) 25 b) 30 c) 40 d) 20 e) 16
e
6. By 1775, which of the following communities could not be considered a city in colonial America? a) New York b) Charlestown c) Philadelphia d) Boston e) Baltimore
e
7. Regarding government, the Scots-Irish colonists a) showed remarkable willingness to follow authority b) supported only Britain c) cherished no love for the British or any other government d) stated a preference for Catholic authority e) established good relations with local Indians
c
8. By 1775, the ____________ were the largest non-English ethnic group in colonial America. a) Africans b) Germans c) West Indians d) Scots-Irish e) Irish
a
9. The population of the thirteen American colonies was a) about evenly divided among Anglo-Saxons, French, Scots-Irish, and Germans b) perhaps the most diverse in the world, although it remained predominantly Anglo-Saxon c) about one-half non-English d) most ethnically mixed in New England e) none of the above
b
10. The most ethnically diverse region of colonial America was _______________, whereas ______________ was the least ethnically diverse. a) New England, the South b) the middle colonies, the South c) the South, New England d) the middle colonies, New England e) the frontier regions, New England
d
11. In contrast to the 17th century, by 1775 colonial Americans a) had become more stratified into social classes and had less social mobility b) had all but eliminated poverty c) found that it was easier for ordinary people to acquire land d) had nearly lost their fear of slave rebellion e) had few people who owned small farms
a
12. By the mid-1700s, the number of poor people in the American colonies a) became greater than in all of Europe b) had increased to the point of overpopulation c) had begun to decline from 17th century levels d) remained tiny compared with the number in England e) was about one-third of the population
d
13. On the eve of the American Revolution, social and economic mobility decreased, partly because a) some merchants made huge profits as military suppliers b) of peacetime economic developments c) fewer yeomen farmers were arriving from Europe d) of the religious impact of the Puritans e) of the increase in the slave trade
a
14. During the colonial era, all of the following peoples created new societies out of diverse ethnic groups in America except a) English b) Africans c) Asians d) Indians e) French
c
15. All of the following conditions caused many Scots to migrate to Northern Ireland and thence to America except a) the poor quality of farmland in Scotland b) the spread of commercial farming c) extremely high rent increase d) persecution for their Catholic religion e) paying taxes to support the Anglican church
d
16. The Scots Irish can best be described as a) fiercely independent b) loyal to the British King c) people who did not like to move d) builders of sturdy homes and well-kept farms e) strong supporters of the Catholic Church
a
17. When the Scots Irish established a new community, one of the first tasks they undertook was to a) build a tavern b) erect a church c) establish a court d) institute a theocracy e) make peace with local Indians
b
18. When it came to religion, the Scots-Irish a) showed little interest b) supported the idea of a theocracy c) supported the Anglican church d) advocated the policy of established churches e) found it to be a bond that held them together
e
19. The most honored profession in early colonial society was a) medicine b) law c) the ministry d) farming e) merchants
c
20. The riches created by the growing slave population in the American South a) were distributed evenly among whites b) helped to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor c) created a serious problem with inflation d) were not distributed evenly among whites e) enabled poor whites to escape tenant farming
d
21. When several colonial legislatures attempted to restrict or halt the importation of slaves, British authorities a) applauded the efforts b) vetoed such efforts c) allowed only South Carolina's legislation to stand d) viewed such colonial actions as morally callous e) did nothing
b
22. The most important economic enterprise in the American colonies was a) fishing b) manufacturing c) commerce d) agriculture e) slave trading
d
23. One of the surest avenues to speedy wealth in the American colonies was a) a commercial venture b) a plantation c) fishing d) manufacturing e) selling slaves
a
24. The triangular trade of the colonial American shipping industry a) was not profitable b) involved America, France, and England c) relied on the Spanish fleet for protection d) saw the Spanish gaining the largest profits e) involved the trading of rum for African slaves
e
25. Of the following, the least important economic activity of colonial Americans was a) fishing b) commerce c) farming d) manufacturing e) slave trading
d
26. Although manufacturing in the colonies was of only secondary importance, they did produce which of the following? a) rum b) beaver hats c) lumber d) iron e) all of the above
e
27. The major manufacturing enterprise in colonial America in the 18th century was a) iron making b) arms and munitions production c) lumbering d) rum distilling e) making clothes
c
28. Which of the following was not considered to be a naval store? a) tar b) pitch c) rosin d) turpentine e) glass
e
29. One feature of the American economy that strained the relationship between the colonies and Britain was the a) British demand to halt the importation of slaves b) growing desire of Americans to trade with other nations in addition to Britain c) lack of any British regulations regarding trade with foreign nations d) British rejection of the Molasses Act e) the Americans' unwillingness to trade with the French West Indies
b
30. When the British Parliament passed the Molasses Act in 1733, it intended the act to a) stimulate the colonies' "triangular trade" with Africa and the West Indies b) satisfy colonial demands for earning foreign exchange money c) inhibit colonial trade with the French West Indies d) increase the colonists' standard of living and protected the livelihood of colonial merchants e) require Americans to sell their molasses to the British
c
31. American colonists sought trade with countries other than Great Britain a) in order to gain their independence b) mainly to anger the king c) to anger Parliament d) to help strengthen the French e) to make money to buy what they wanted in Britain
e
32. Transportation in colonial America was a) surprisingly fast for the time b) safer by road than by any other means c) slow by any of the means available d) so poor that no mail service was established until the 1800s e) fast only on the waterways
c
33. Colonial American taverns were all of the following except a) frequented mainly by the lower class b) another cradle of democracy c) hotbeds of agitation for the Revolutionary movement d) important in crystallizing public opinion e) places providing amusements
a
34. English officials tried to "establish" the Church of England in as many colonies as possible because a) they were concerned about the eternal souls of the colonists b) the church would act as a major prop for kingly authority c) such an action would restore enthusiasm for religion d) the American colonists supported such a move e) such an action brought in more money to England
b
35. In 1775, the __________________ churches were the only two established (tax-supported) churches in colonial America. a) Methodist and Anglican b) Presbyterian and Congregational c) Congregational and Anglican d) Quaker and Catholic e) Presbyterian and Anglican
c
36. Match each denomination of the left with the region where it predominated. A. Congregationalist 1. the Frontier B. Anglican 2. New England C. Presbyterian 3. the South a) A-2, B-3, C-1 b) A-2, B-1, C-3 c) A-1, B-3, C-2 d) A-3, B-2, C-1 e) A-3, B-1, C-2
a
37. As the Revolution approached, Presbyterian and Congregational ministers in general a) remained neutral b) supported the Revolutionary cause c) sided with the Anglican clergymen d) opposed the idea of revolution e) split on the issue of independence
b
38. By the early 18th century, religion in colonial America was a) stronger than at any previous time b) holding steadfastly to the belief that spiritual conversion was essential for church membership c) moving away from clerical intellectualism d) lass fervid than when the colonies were established e) becoming less tolerant
d
39. The religious doctrine of the Armenians held that a) predestination determined a person's eternal fate b) good works could get you into heaven c) Calvin's ideas should be followed without question d) emotion had no place in religion e) individual free will determined a person's eternal fate
e
40. Match each individual on the left with his or her talent. A. Jonathan Edwards 1. poet B. Benjamin Franklin 2. scientist C. Phillis Wheatley 3. theologian 4. portrait artist a) A-2, B-1, C-3 b) A-1, B-3, C-2 c) A-3, B-2, C-1 d) A-1, B-2, C-3 e) A-2, B-3, C-1
c
41. The "new light" preachers of the Great Awakening a) delivered intensely emotional sermons b) rarely addressed themselves to the matter of individual salvation c) reinforced the established churches d) were ultimately unsuccessful in arousing the religious enthusiasm of colonial Americans e) opposed the emotionalism of the revivalists
a
42. The Great Awakening a) undermined the prestige of the learned clergy in the colonies b) split colonial churches into several competing denominations c) led to the founding of Princeton, Dartmouth, and Rutgers colleges d) was the first spontaneous mass movement of the American people e) all of the above
e
43. The time-honored English ideal, which Americans accepted for some time, regarded education as a) essential training for citizenship b) designed for men and women c) reserved for the aristocratic few d) unimportant for leaders e) designed for rich and poor alike
c
44. In colonial America, education was most zealously promoted a) in the South b) in New England c) on the frontier d) in the middle colonies e) in those areas controlled by Spain
b
45. Colonial schools and colleges placed their main emphasis on a) math b) science c) modern languages d) literature e) religion
e
46. The first American college free from determined control was a) Harvard b) Yale c) New York University d) Brown University e) The University of Pennsylvania
e
47. Culture in colonial America a) involved heavy investment in art b) was generally ignored an unappreciated c) showed its native creativity in architecture d) was always important to the colonists e) for a long time rejected any European influence
b
48. The person most often called the "first civilized American" was a) Thomas Jefferson b) John Trumball c) John Winthrop d) Phillis Wheatley e) Benjamin Franklin
e
49. All of the following are achievements of Benjamin Franklin except a) the lightening rod b) author of Poor Richard's Almanack c) bifocal glasses d) a highly efficient stove e) influential poetry
e
50. The jury's decision in the case of John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, was significant because a) he was found guilty b) it supported English law c) it pointed the way to open public discussion d) the ruling prohibited criticism of political officials e) it allowed the press to print irresponsible criticism of power people
c
51. One political principle that colonial Americans came to cherish above most others was a) the property qualification for voting b) one man, one vote c) the separation of powers d) self-taxation through representation e) restricting the right to vote to men only
d
52. By 1775, most governors of American colonies were a) appointed by colonial proprietors b) appointed by the king c) elected by popular vote d) elected by the vote of colonial legislatures e) appointed by the British Parliament
b
53. Colonial legislatures were often able to bend the power of the governors to their will because a) the governors often had a greater sense of loyalty to their colony than to the king b) the governors were usually chosen by colonial legislatures and could be removed from office by the legislatures c) the king generally held the views of colonial legislators in higher regard than those of the governors d) colonial legislatures controlled taxes and expenditures that paid the governors' salaries e) of the threat of violence
d
54. In colonial elections, a) most eligible voters zealously exercised their right to vote b) the right to vote was reserved for property holders c) only a small landed elite had the right to vote d) average citizens were usually elected to office e) true democracy had arrived
b
55. By the mid-eighteenth century, North American colonies shared all of the following similarities except a) same degree of ethnic and religious toleration b) basically English in language c) protestant in religion d) opportunity for social mobility e) complete democracy
e
Chp. 6
...
1. During the seventeenth century, America established the precedent of a) staying out of European wars if possible b) relying totally on the British for defense c) starting was in Europe d) being involved in every world war since 1688 e) fighting wars on both land and sea
d
2. The soldier and explorer whose leadership entered him the title "Father of New France" was a) Samuel de Champlain b) Robert de La Salle c) Antoine Cadillac d) Des Moines e) Edward Vincennes
a
3. France was finally able to join in the scramble for colonies in the New World as a result of the a) Protestant takeover of the French government b) end of the religious wars c) revocation of the Edict of Nantes d) St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre e) Seven Years' War
b
4. Government in New France (Canada) was a) almost completely autocratic b) democratic c) similar to that of the English colonies d) noted for its trial by jury e) free from the king's control
a
5. Unlike the English colonies in America, in New France a) there were no popularly elected assemblies b) the crown refused to promote the welfare of French colonization c) the population grew very rapidly d) no valuable resources for exploitation existed e) the colonists practiced religious toleration
a
6. The one valuable resource in New France was a) fish b) gold c) trees d) corn e) beavers
e
7. The coureurs de bois were a) French soldiers b) French boatmen c) Catholic priests d) French farmers e) French fur trappers
e
8. The population in Catholic New France grew very slowly because a) French peasants were not allowed to move b) the Protestant Huguenots refused to move there c) the French government was more concerned with its Caribbean island colonies d) disease took a heavy toll on New France's inhabitants e) of constant attacks by the Huron Indians
d
9. The primary economic pursuit of early settlers in New France was a) farming b) fishing c) mining d) fur trapping e) rum manufacturing
d
10. The Indians suffered from their association with the French in New France in all of the following ways except a) exclusion from the fur business b) decimation of their numbers by the white man's diseases c) violation of their religious beliefs d) debauchery by the white man's alcohol e) weakening of their traditional way of life
a
11. The Jesuit priests played a vital role in New France because a) of the many converts to Catholicism b) of the health care c) they made peace with the Indians d) they encouraged the Indians to participate in the fur trade e) of their exploration and work as geographers
e
12. The French wanted to control Louisiana because they a) liked its climate b) wanted to keep the area unfortified c) would then control the mouth of the Mississippi d) feared Dutch expansion into the territory e) saw it as a dumping ground for undesirables
c
13. French motives in the New World included the desire to a) establish agricultural communities to produce profitable staple crops b) convert Indians to Protestantism c) compete with Spain for an empire in America d) provide a place for French religious dissenters to settle e) compete with Portugal for an empire in America
c
14. The early wars between France and Britain in North America were notable for the a) large number of troops committed by both sides b) lack of Indian participation c) carry over of European tactics to America d) use of primitive guerilla warfare e) all of the above
d
15. During a generation of peace following the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, Britain provided its America colonies with a) large military presence for protection b) decades of salutary neglect c) higher taxes passed by Parliament d) stronger parliamentary direction e) all of the above
b
16. The War of Jenkins's Ear was a) fought in European waters b) a great victory for Spain c) actually started when Captain Jenkins had his ear cut off d) the event that established the policy of salutary neglect e) a defeat for France
c
17. The War of Jenkins's Ear resulted in a) France allying itself with Britain b) British troops being involved in every territory in North America c) France losing its vast holdings in North America d) the colony of Georgia fighting the Spanish to a standstill e) all of the above
c
18. New England colonists were outraged when diplomats returned _____________ to France in 1748. a) Hudson Bay b) Acadia c) Louisbourg d) Newfoundland e) Nova Scotia
b
19. The climactic clash Britain and France for control of the North American continent sprang from their rivalry for control of a) Cape Breton Island b) the Ohio River Valley c) the Mississippi River d) the Great Lakes e) the St. Lawrence River
d
20. A key reason France needed to control the Ohio Valley was to a) stop Spain from extending its empire b) help with the War of Jenkins's Ear c) stop the Indian attacks on its outposts d) link its Canadian holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley e) be able to put more of its settlers there in order to increase farm production
b
21. In his first military command in the French and Indian War, George Washington a) won at Fort Duquesne b) was defeated but was allowed to retreat c) received strong support from the British d) helped to force the French out of Nova Scotia e) turned his twenty years of military experience to great success
b
22. The French and Indian war was also known in Europe as a) the War of Jenkins's Ear b) the Seven Years' War c) the War of Austrian Succession d) King William's War e) Queen Anne's War
c
23. In the colonial wars before 1754, Americans a) functioned as a unified fighting force b) received more support from France than Britain c) demonstrated an astonishing lack of unity d) were not involved in combat e) rarely involved Indians in the fighting
b
24. The immediate purpose of the Albany Congress of 1754 was to a) request the help of the British military b) keep the Iroquois tribes loyal to the British c) prevent the French form attacking American outposts d) support George Washington's desire to head the colonial militia e) block British efforts to take control of New York City
c
25. Unlike the first three Anglo-French wars, the French and Indian War a) won the British territorial concessions b) united British colonists in strong support of the mother country c) was fought initially on the North American continent d) did not affect American colonists' attitudes toward England e) resulted in a stronger French presence in North America
b
26. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity; (B) General Edward Braddock is defeated near Fort Duquesne; (C) British troops capture Louisbourg in their first significant victory of the French and Indian War; (D) General James Wolfe's army defeats Montecalm's on the Plains of Abraham. a) B, A, D. C b) A, B, C, D c) C, B, A, D d) A, C, B, D e) A, B, D, C
a
27. The long range purpose of the Albany Congress in 1754 was to a) achieve colonial unity and common defense against the French threat b) propose independence of the colonies from Britain c) declare war on the Iroquois tribe d) prohibit New England and New York from trading with the French West Indies e) gain peace with France
c
28. Benjamin Franklin's plan for colonial home rule was rejected by the individual colonies because a) it did not provide for the common defense b) the British approved it c) it did not seem to give enough independence to the colonies d) they did not feel that they had been well represented at the Albany Congress e) it placed to much power in the hands of the local governments
c
29. As a result of General Braddock's defeat a few miles from Fort Duquesne, a) the British controlled the frontier b) George Washington was left without a military command c) the frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was open to Indian attack d) General Braddock was forced to leave the military e) the British called off their planned invasion of Canada
d
30. The British invasion of Canada in 1756 during the French and Indian War a) resulted in victory for Britain b) concentrated on Quebec and Montreal c) followed sound strategic planning d) ended in defeat e) resulted in British control of the St. Lawrence River
d
31. When William Pitt became prime minister during the French and Indian War, he a) ended Parliament's practice of reimbursing the colonies for their war-related expenditures b) ordered a full-scale assault on the French West Indies c) relied heavily on the older, more cautious generals in the British Army d) focused his military strategy on the capture of French Canada e) remained popular with the wealthy but not the poor
e
32. The 1759 Battle of Quebec a) had little impact on the French and Indian War b) was a key turning point in Queen Anne's War c) was a dramatic victory for the French d) ended the war of French succession e) ranks as one of the most significant victories in British and American history
a
33. In the peace arrangements that ended the French and Indian War, a) France surrendered all of its territorial claims to North America b) England turned Florida over to Spain c) Spain ceded all of Louisiana, including New Orleans, to Britain d) France lost all of its valuable sugar islands in the West Indies e) the British got all of Canada except Nova Scotia
b
34. As a result of the French and Indian War, Great Britain a) gained control of Louisiana b) became the dominant power in North America c) annexed the island of Cuba d) gained exclusive control of the slave trade e) all of the above
a
35. For the American colonies, the French and Indian War a) ended the myth of British invincibility b) left them in need of experienced officers c) offered the opportunity to grow closer to the British d) gave them the opportunity finally to gain control of Mississippi e) helped improve relations between Britain and the colonies
c
36. During the French and Indian War, a) colonial militiamen were impressed with the seeming invincibility of the British regulars b) British officers roundly praised the skillful fighting ability of colonial troops c) British officials were disturbed by the lukewarm support of many colonials d) the colonists lost confidence in their own military capability e) all American trade with Spain and France ended
b
37. With the end of the French and Indian War, the disunity, jealously, and suspicion that long existed in the American colonies a) continued without change b) began to melt c) finally came to a complete end d) resulted in renewed acts of violence e) none of the above
e
38. The disunity that existed in the colonies before the French and Indian War can be attributed to a) the enormous distances between the colonies b) geographical barriers like rivers c) conflicting religions d) varied nationalities e) all of the above
d
39. France had to give up its vision of a North American New France when a) its fishing industry faltered b) farming proved to be unprofitable c) King Louis XIV died d) it was defeated by the British in 1713 and 1763 e) it could not entice enough settlers to America
b
40. When the Acadians left Canada, they went to a) Florida b) Louisiana c) France d) Nova Scotia e) the French West Indies
c
41. The isolation of Louisiana's Cajun communities ended a) during the Civil War b) only with the civil rights movement of the 1960s c) with bridge building in the 1930s d) with intermarriage to Germans, English, and Spanish e) during the American Revolution
e
42. The primary thing that the Acadians and Quebecois believed that bound them together was their a) religion b) culture c) military experience d) exile to Louisiana e) language
c
43. With the British and American victory in the French and Indian War, a) the American colonies grew closer to Britain b) Americans now feared the Spanish c) a new spirit of independence arose, as the French thereat disappeared d) the Indians were stopped from ever again launching a deadly attack against whites e) the British no longer retaliated against the Indians
e
44. In a sense, the history of the United States began with the a) Revolutionary War b) July 4, 1776, signing the Declaration of Independence c) Boston Tea Party d) founding of the first colony of 1607 e) fall of Quebec and Montreal
a
45. With the defeat of the Chief Pontiac and his alliance, the British decided to a) stabilize Indian-white relations b) let the colonists assume financial responsibility for defending themselves c) remove troops stationed in the colonies d) enlist the aid of France to halt the Indian menace e) open land west of the Appalachian mountains to settlement
d
46. Chief Pontiac decided to try to drive the British out of the Ohio Valley because a) the British were weak as a result of the French and Indian War b) the British had deliberately infected Indians with smallpox c) of the Proclamation of 1763 d) the Indians were in a precarious position e) the French government had promised to help
e
47. The Proclamation of 1763 was issued mainly to a) oppress the colonists b) punish the Indians c) show the power of Parliament d) allow western settlement by the colonists e) work out a fair settlement of the Indian problem
e
48. In the wake of the Proclamation of 1763 a) American colonists obeyed the law they hated b) relations with France improved c) relations between the American colonies and the British government were destroyed d) the American colonies believed their destiny had been destroyed e) American colonists moved west, defying the Proclamation
d
Chp. 7
...
1. One change in colonial policy by the British government that helped precipitate the American Revolution involved a) removing British troops from American soil b) beginning a war with Spain c) removing the majority of the British navy from American waters d) compelling the American colonists to shoulder some of the financial costs of the empire e) all of the above
d
2. When it came to the Revolution, it could be said that the American colonists were a) eager revolutionaries b) up until the end wanting more than the "rights of Englishmen" c) little concerned about economics d) clearly opposed to tightening commercial bonds to the British e) reluctant revolutionaries
e
3. In a broad sense, America was a) a revolutionary force from the day of its discovery by Europeans b) a place that nurtured a love for Britain c) completely dependent on Britain for economic support d) a place few new ideas took shape e) none of the above
a
4. The American colonial exponents of republicanism argued that a just society depends on a) a powerful central government b) a weak army c) a strong aristocratic tradition d) support for hierarchical institutions e) the willingness of all citizens to subordinate their private interests to the common good
e
5. Republican belief held that the stability of society and the authority of the government a) rested with the legislature b) depended on a strong hierarchical culture c) rested with a strong monarchy d) rested on an interdependence of all citizens e) depended upon the virtue of its citizenry
e
6. The "radical whigs" feared a) too much democracy b) a written constitution c) the arbitrary power of the monarchy d) a too powerful parliament e) all of the above
c
7. Mercantilists believed that a) a nation needed to import more goods than it exported b) power came from a small colonial empire c) the mother country produced raw materials and colonies produced the finished product d) a country's economic wealth could be measured by the amount of gold and silver in its treasury e) colonies drained a country of its resources
d
8. The founding of the American colonies by the British was a) accomplished in a well-planned fashion b) based on the high-minded aspirations of groups such as the Puritans and the Quakers c) undertaken by the government in every case d) undertaken in a haphazard manner e) rarely undertaken by trading companies or religious groups
d
9. Under mercantilist doctrine, the American colonies were expected to do all of the following except a) supply Britain with raw materials not available there b) become economically self-sufficient as soon as possible c) furnish ships, seamen, and trade to blaster the strength of the Royal Navy d) provide a market for British manufactured goods e) refrain from exporting woolen cloth
b
10. The first Navigation Laws were designed to a) help colonists get the best possible price for their trade goods b) eliminate Dutch shippers from the American carrying trade c) foster a colonial economy that would offer healthy competition with Britain's d) encourage agricultural experimentation in the colonies e) support the mapping of the Atlantic trade routes
b
11. The British Parliament enacted currency legislation that was intended primarily to benefit a) Virginia tobacco planters b) British merchants c) New England merchants d) backwoods farmers e) the Crown
b
12. The British Crown's "royal veto" of colonial legislation a) was used frequently to overturn laws passed in colonial assemblies b) prohibited colonists from conducting the slave trade c) was what finally provoked the War of Independence d) restrained colonies from printing paper currency e) was opposed by Parliament
d
13. Under the mercantilist system, the British government reserved the right to do all of the following regarding the American colonies except a) restrain the colonies from printing paper currency b) restrict the passage of lax bankruptcy laws c) nullify any colonial legislation deemed bad for the mercantilist system d) prevent the colonies from developing militias e) enumerate products that must be shipped to Britain
d
14. Before 1763 Navigation Laws a) were very effective b) hurt Great Britain more than the American colonies c) were a great burden to only India d) discouraged smuggling by American colonists e) were only loosely enforced in the American colonies
e
15. Despite the benefits of the mercantile system, the American colonists disliked it because a) it forced New England into a one-crop economy b) it favored the northern over the southern colonies c) it forced economic initiative on the colonists d) they found it debasing e) all of the above
d
16. In some ways, the Navigation Laws were a burden to certain colonists because a) northern merchants derived greater benefit from the system than did southern planters b) those colonists were heavily taxed to help provide financing for the Royal Navy, which protected colonial and British trade c) they stifled economic initiative d) Britain had the only European empire based on mercantilistic principles e) They gave greater benefits to slave holders
c
17. A new relationship between Britain and its American colonies was initiated in 1763 when _________________ assumed charge of colonial policy. a) Charles Townshend b) George Grenville c) Lord North d) William Pitt e) King George III
b
18. Match each Act below with the correct description. A. Sugar Act 1. British law intended to raise revenues in B. Stamp Act colonies C. Declaratory Act 2. asserted Parliament's absolute power over the colonies 3. required colonists to lodge British troops in their homes 4. generated the most protest in the colonies a) A-3, B-2, C-1 b) A-1, B-4, C-3 c) A-1, B-4, C-2 d) A-4, B-1, C-2 e) A-2, B-1, C-4
c
19. The first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenues in the colonies for the crown was the a) Stamp Act b) Declaratory Act c) Townshend Duties d) Quartering Act e) Sugar Act
e
20. The British Parliament passed the Stamp Act to a) raise money to support new military forces needed for colonial defense b) punish the American colonists c) reduce the number of printed documents in the colonies d) enable tax collectors to become wealthy e) raise taxes to a higher level than Britain
a
21. Passage of the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act a) led many colonists to believe that the British were expanding colonial freedom b) convinced many colonists that the British were trying to take away their historic liberty c) resulted in fewer laws being passed by Parliament regarding the colonies d) exemplified to many colonists the difference between legislation and taxation e) required action by each colonial legislature
b
22. Unlike the ___________________ Act, the ____________________ Act and the ________________ Act were both indirect taxes on trade goods arriving in American ports. a) Townshend, Stamp, Sugar b) Stamp, Sugar, Townshend c) Stamp, Quartering, Townshend d) Declaratory, Stamp, Sugar e) Quartering, Stamp, Sugar
b
23. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) Sugar Act, (B) Declaratory Act, (C) Stamp Act, (D) repeal of the Stamp Act a) A, C, D, B b) C, A, D, B c) C, B, A, D d) B, A, C, D e) A, B, D, C
a
24. Colonists objected to the Stamp Act because a) it was a very expensive tax b) they believed it could not be repealed c) Parliament passed the tax, not the colonists d) they opposed all taxes e) they wanted their independence
c
25. When colonists shouted "No taxation without representation," they were rejecting Parliament's power to a) legislate for the colonies in any matter whatsoever b) levy revenue-raising taxes on the colonies c) enforce the old Navigation Acts d) regulate trade in the empire e) choose colonial legislators who would pass taxes
b
26. Actions taken by the colonist that helped them unite include a) the Stamp Act Congress b) nonimportation agreements c) spinning bees d) the making and wearing of homemade woolen goods e) all of the above
e
27. "Virtual" representation meant that a) almost all British subjects were represented in Parliament b) every member of Parliament represented all British subjects c) colonists could elect their own representatives to Parliament d) Parliament could pass virtually all types of legislation except taxes e) each member of Parliament represented only people in his district
b
28. Colonial protest against the Stamp Act took the form of a) convening a colonial congress to request repeal of the Act b) a colonial boycott against British goods c) violence in several colonial towns d) wearing homemade woolen clothes e) all of the above
e
29. As a result of American opposition to the Townshend Acts, a) British officials sent regiments of troops to Boston to restore law and order b) the port of Boston was closed c) Americans killed several British soldiers in the Boston Massacre d) Parliament repealed all of the taxes levied under this legislation e) Prime Minister Townshend was forced to resign
a
30. The colonists took the Townshend Acts less seriously than the Stamp Act because a) they saw the futility of resistance b) smuggling was nearly impossible c) it was a direct tax d) the items taxed were rarely used e) it was light and indirect
e
31. Arrange these events in chronological order: (A) Boston Massacre, (B) Townshend Duties, (C) Tea Act, (D) Intolerable Acts. a) A, B, C, D b) D, B, C, A c) C, B, D, A d) B, A, C, D e) A, C, D, B
d
32. Match each individual on the left with the correct description. A. Samuel Adams 1. a casualty of the Boston Massacre B. John Adams 2. a foreign volunteer who drilled American C. Crispus Attucks troops during the War of Independence 3. a pamphleteer who first organized committees to exchange ideas and information on resisting British policy 4. a Massachusetts politician who opposed the moderates' solution to the imperial crisis at the First Continental Congress a) A-4, B-3, C-2 b) A-3, B-4, C-1 c) A-2, B-4, C-2 d) A-2, B-1, C-3 e) A-4, B-1, C-2
b
33. The tax on tea was retained when the Townshend Acts were repealed because a) the people loved tea b) the money was needed to support troops c) it kept alive the principle of parliamentary taxation d) it was the only tax passed by the colonists e) colonial governors requested it
c
34. The local committees of correspondence organized by Samuel Adams a) promoted his bid to become governor of Massachusetts b) promoted independent action in each colony to support the British c) kept opposition to the British alive, through exchange of propaganda d) served as a precursor to the United States Postal Service e) led the Boston Massacre
c
35. Arrange the following events in chronological order: (A) clash at Lexington and Concord, (B) meeting of the First Continental Congress, (C) Quebec Act, (C) Boston Tea Party a) C, D, A, B b) B, A, C, D c) D, C, B, A d) A, B, D, C e) A, D, C, B
c
36. When Parliament passed the Tea Act, colonists a) rejoiced that Parliament had seemingly accepted the American definition of representation b) suspected that it was a trick to get them to violate their principle of "No taxation without representation." c) immediately called the First Continental Congress into session d) avoided the tax on tea by buying their tea directly from the British East India Company e) gave up tea and turned to coffee
b
37. The Boston Tea Party of 1773 was a) an isolated incident b) directed only at the British East India Tea Company c) not the only such protest to occur d) supported by friends of America in Britain e) the result of the Intolerable Acts
c
38. The most dramatic measure of the Intolerable Acts was the a) Quartering Act b) Quebec Act c) Sugar Act d) Courts Act e) Boston Port Act
e
39. The Quebec Act a) outlawed Catholicism in British Quebec b) denied Quebec a representative assembly c) restricted Quebec's boundaries to the area north of the Great Lakes d) was generally ignored by the thirteen seaboard colonies because it had little effect on their relations with Britain e) was a shortsighted, unstatesmanlike measure
b
40. The Quebec act was especially unpopular in the American colonies because it did all of the following except a) turn an extensive amount of territory over to Catholic control b) affect many colonies, not just Massachusetts c) deny the French the right to retain many of their old customs d) alarm land speculators, who saw a huge area snatched from their grasp e) it set a dangerous precedent against jury trials
c
41. The First Continental Congress was called in order to a) consider ways of redressing colonial grievances b) become a legislative body c) write a Declaration of Independence d) decide which of Parliament's taxes the colonies would and would not pay e) help implement provisions of the Quebec Act
a
42. The First Continental Congress a) was attended by delegates from each of the thirteen colonies b) adopted a moderate proposal for establishing a kind of home rule for the colonies under British direction c) made a ringing declaration of America's independence from Britain d) called for a complete boycott of British goods e) adjourned shortly after convening
d
43. As a result of Parliament's rejection of the petitions of the Continental Congress, a) Americans reluctantly obeyed the British laws b) fighting and bloodshed took place, and war began c) Sam Adams and John Hancock were arrested d) America sent new petitions to Parliament e) Ben Franklin returned to the colonies since his efforts failed
b
44. As the War for Independence began, Britain had the advantage of a) overwhelming national wealth and naval power b) an alliance with Spain and Holland c) a well-organized and united home government and population d) first-rate generals and a well-supplied professional army e) all of the above
a
45. All of the following were weaknesses of the British military during the War for Independence except a) second-rate officers b) soldiers who were incapable of fighting effectively c) the need to keep many soldiers in Europe in case of trouble d) the long supply lines e) a brutal treatment of their soldiers
b
46. Many Whigs in Britain hoped for an American victory in the War for Independence because they a) favored French domination of North America b) were strongly pacifist c) feared that if George III triumphed, his rule at home might become tyrannical d) rejected colonialism e) opposed the mercantilist system
c
47. As the War for Independence began, the colonies had the advantage of a) highly reliable and well-supplied troops b) potential aid from the Armed Neutrality League c) a well-organized, strongly committed, and united population d) many outstanding civil and military leaders e) able naval leaders
d
48. The colonists faced all of the following weaknesses in the War for Independence except a) poor organization b) sectional jealousy, which constantly interfered with the appointment of military leaders c) great difficulties in raising money to support the army d) the use of numerous European officers e) a weak central authority running the war effort
d
49. By the end of the War for Independence, a) the majority of Americans supported independence with selfless devotion b) America had an army larger than Britain's c) the American military no longer needed foreign assistance d) a few thousand American regular troops were finally whipped into shape e) America had built a strong navy
d
50. African Americans during the Revolutionary War a) fought for both the Americans and the British b) fought only for the British c) fought only for the Americans d) supported neither side, as both enslaved them e) seized the opportunity to gain their freedom by running away to Barbados
a
51. Regarding American independence, a) a majority of Americans supported the cause selflessly b) most of the American business community sacrificed profit for victory c) France gave little assistance d) only a select minority supported independence with selfless devotion e) Spain was in total opposition
d
52. "Varying Viewpoints" notes that the most influential view of the American Revolution currently holds that a) it was an inevitable step in the progress of humanity b) struggle among different social groups brought about change c) fear of losing their liberty drove the colonists to war d) the war was more a battle for who should rule at home than for home rule e) our struggle for independence had little effect on the world
c
53. As noted in "Varying Viewpoints," historians since the 1960s have interpreted the Revolutionary struggle as a) a battle between British regulars and the Continental Army b) the exportation of European rivalries to North America c) one in which economic concerns played a crucial role d) a war of large battles, e.g., Saratoga, Brandywine, and Yorktown e) having little to do with economics
c