Chapter 26,28.1, 30.1: Cold War Conflicts
Terms in this set (57)
conflict between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other
on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
US aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe; was intended to strengthen capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from gaining power since communism spreads under bad economic conditions
formed after WWII to promote
security, and cooperation.
US and USSR both joined.
Harry S. Truman
US President at the end of WWII
1947, President Truman's policy of providing
economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism
or totalitarian ideology, mainly
helped Greece and Turkey ($400 million in aid)
US foreign policy 1946-1990 tried to
stop the spread of communism
by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
defensive military alliance
whose members include the United States, Canada, most Western European nations, and Turkey, all of whom agreed to combine military forces and to treat a war against one as a war against all to
protect against Soviet aggression in Europe
An alliance between the Soviet Union and Eastern bloc nations to counter NATO
The US airlift of supplies into Berlin in response to the Soviet Union's blockade of the city; kept West Berlin out of communist control, stopping the spread of communism
Chinese Civil War
War between communist Mao Zedong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek.
The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan
Nationalist [Kuomintang] leader
who tried to unite China by military means in the 1930s but was defeated by the Communists. Forced to abandon mainland China in 1949, he
set up a separate Nationalist Chinese State in Taiwan.
leader who led the Communist Party of China to victory against the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War by
winning the hearts of the Chinese peasants. Founded the People's Republic of China.
Programs led to large unnecessary loss of life and damage to the culture, society, economy, and foreign relations
(US did not support him because he was a communist).
also called the Republic of China (ROC); established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek and the
after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
1950-53 Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the
United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea
People's Republic of China allying with North Korea.
In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination. He wanted to extend the war to China, which was fighting on the side of the communist North Koreans
A line of latitude
separating what is now communist North and non-communist South Korea,
decided upon after the war ended in 1945. While never intended to be permanent, this divide lasted for many years. Truman stopped the spread of communism on the Korean peninsula
(House Un-American Activities Committee) HUAC
Congressional anti-communist committee that investigated possible subversive activities
within the United States.
The act of accusing people of disloyalty and communism [subversion]
Senator Joseph McCarthy
senator and HUAC (House Un-American Committee) leader who claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential
Greece and Turkey
The containment policy of the Truman Doctrine was first applied by the US in these two countries, which were given $400 million to resist communist insurgencies under the Marshall Plan
Arguments for aiding Greece and Turkey
1. helping Greece honors the Atlantic Charter--they are a US ally occupied by Germany during the war and threatened by economic collapse
2. The Soviets will use their influence to take advantage of the unstable post war economies--these nations might become communist
3. The UN is not capable of helping and keeping the peace
4. US supports anyone who opposes aggression
5. the war severely damaged Greece--children were starving and sick with tuberculosis
6. Turkey borders the Soviet Union-we don't want the Soviets to expand their control and we want an ally close to the USSR
Arguments against aiding Greece and Turkey
1. If the UN is to succeed, it should give aid rather than the US
2. it interferes with the internal affairs of these countries, which goes against US and UN policy
3. it strengthens Turkey, which is NOT democratic
4. the rest of the world will want the same kind of aid
5. these actions will anger the Soviet Union and may lead to war
Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist (east) and democratic (west) nations
a list of 500 actors, writers, producers, and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood films b/c of the alleged Communist connections
second Red Scare
Post-World War II hysteria and fear of Communists in U.S. government positions; peaked during the Korean War and declined soon thereafter, when the U.S. Senate censured Joseph McCarthy
Truman's failure in China
China became communist and an ally of the Soviet Union; Truman "lost" China because he did not stop the spread of communism
State Department official
who was accused of being a
and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Soviets in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
an American spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied it at first, but was embarrassed because the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War
the U-2 Spy Plane pilot that was captured by the Soviet Union. He was captured alive
Dwight D. Eisenhower
"Ike" was looked to for reassuring leadership after decades of depression/war
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
American communists who were executed after having been found guilty of giving nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union.
policy to stop the spread of communism in the Middle East
John Foster Dulles
Eisenhower's secretary of state, 1953-1959; he believed Communism was evil and must be stopped with "brinkmanship" (the readiness and willingness to go to war) and "massive retaliation" (the threat of using nuclear weapons).
1950s Soviet leader (Sputnik, Hungary, U-2)
Mutually Assured Destruction
A military strategy describing Cold War. If full-scale nuclear warfare occurred, it would cause total annihilation of both the target and attacker. A deterrent against war.
invasion of Hungary
Hungarians revolted against the Soviets in 1956. US did nothing. Soviets crushed them to stop the spread of democracy
hydrogen bomb (nukes, the bomb, h-bomb)
One thousand more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.
28. Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed in Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster [fiasco], President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
28. John F. Kennedy
young president who won the 1960 election against Nixon; events during presidency: Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War.
28. Cuban Missile Crisis
this international crisis was the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev gave in on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
28. Berlin Wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
a direct telephone connection between the US and Soviet Union leaders to avoid miscommunication that might start a nuclear war
28 Richard Nixon
-Eisenhower's Vice President who lost the election of 1960 to Kennedy; launched career on HUAC during Alger Hiss
28 Limited Test Ban Treaty
1963 treaty in which the United States and the Soviet Union agreed not to test nuclear weapons in the atmosphere
30 Woodrow Wilson
US president that wanted self-determination for Europe, but not Indochina
30 Treaty of Versailles
ended WWI and started Vietnam's bid for independence from France
side Vietnam fought for during WWI
3o. Dien Bien Phu
battle where French lost Indochina and were kicked out of Vietnam
A 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam but required North and South Vietnam to be united by a vote
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. This was Eisenhower's theory about what would happen in Asia if Vietnam became communist
South Vietnam non-Communist leader; he was unpopular (even with US ally) because he was corrupt and brutal; he was assassinated
showed their opposition to the Diem government through protests and self immolation (set themselves on fire)
Blockade, JFK's response to the discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba; this less aggressive response helped avoid war
Ho Chi Minh
-a young Vietnamese nationalist who turned to the Communists for help in his struggle; US enemy because he insisted on self-determination for Asians, was a communist, and fought against our French ally and then used guerrilla warfare against the US
Egypt nationalizes canal; UK/France/Israel go to war; US/USSR press UN for peaceful resolution
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
The Cold War
Cold War chapter 18 and 20 study guide
Cold War: Study Guide
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Silent 'e' Practice, vowel combinations
SS 3 Unit 2: No photos
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 29: Civil Rights
Chapter 27: The Postwar Boom
Chapter 24: World War Looms
Chapter 28: Cold War and the Great Society