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heavily armored infantrymen who fought in close formation

Pelopponesian Wars

a conflict initiated due to hostilities between former city-state allies that resulted in the eventual defeat of Athens by Sparta and its allies


statesman who dominated Athenian politics from 461 B.C.E. until his death; he led Athens to its greatest heights of success


an Athenian war ship

Hellenistic Age

the epoch ushered in by the conquests of Alexander; influenced Greek culture


Athenian philosopher brought to trial for his teachings that were believed to undermine the Athenian democracy

Persian Wars

a conflict initiated by an uprising of the Ionian Greek colonists that lasted on and off for two centuries and was of profound importance in the eastern Mediterranean


consisted of an urban center and the rural hinterlands that it controlled; usually translated as "city-state"


central ritual of the Greek religion


a person who seized and held power in violation of the normal political institutions and traditions of the community; most prevalent in Greek city-states during the mid-seventh and sixth-centuries B.C.E.


Persian leader; united Persian tribes and overthrew the Median monarchy


governors put in place by Darius to supervise the twenty provinces of the Persian Empire

Darius I

Persian king who seized power following the death of Cambyses; eventually extended Persian control to the Indus River in the east, and into Europe in the west


ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire


monotheistic religion, hymns or Gathas written in archaic Iranian dialect; practiced by Darius I and his successors


the excersise of political power by all the free, adult males; this originated in Athens

Alexander the Great

son of King Philip of Macedon; conquered the Persian Empire, Egypt, and the lands east as far as the Indus River


dynasty that ruled Egypt following the death of Alexander and actively encouraged Greek immigration to Egypt


the greatest city of all during an age of cities; famous for its library and lighthouse


chronicler of the exploits of the Greeks and other events of his time; considered the "father of history"

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